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MBH - Nucleic Acids

OCR A level Biology F212

What is the function of DNA? How does its structure relate to this function? Contains genetic information. Long and tightly coiled, so that a lot of information can fit into a small space in the cell nucleus.
How do DNA molecules make self-replication easier? Have a paired structure.
What is a gene? A section of DNA that codes for a specific sequence of amino acids that forms a particular protein.
What is RNA used for? To make proteins from the instructions contained within DNA.
What is DNA? A polynucleotide, made up from lots of joined nucleotides.
What is a nucleotide made from? A deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base.
What is the same between nucleotides and what varies? The same sugar and phosphate, varying nitrogen containing base.
What are the pyramidines? Cytosine, thymine and uracil.
What are the purines? Adenine and guanine.
Which base pairs with adenine in DNA? Thymine.
Which base pairs with guanine in DNA? Cytosine.
What is the structure of DNA? Two polynucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds between the bases, to form an anti-parallel double helix. Nucleotides join up between phosphate group and sugar.
How many hydrogen bonds form between A and T? Two.
How many hydrogen bonds form between C and G? Three.
How does the sugar in RNA differ from that in DNA? Ribose rather than deoxyribose.
What is the difference in structure between RNA and DNA? RNA is a single polynucleotide strand, DNA is a double one.
What replaces thymine in RNA? Uracil, pairs with adenine in RNA.
What are different proteins made from? A different number of amino acids in a different order.
How is the order of amino acids in a particular protein determined? By the order of nucleotide bases in a gene.
How many bases codes for each amino acid? Three.
What do different base sequences code for? Different amino acids.
What are proteins used for? All the reactions and processes of living organisms.
Where are ribosomes found? In the cytoplasm.
What are DNA molecules too large to do? Move out of the nucleus.
What is DNA copied into? RNA.
What does RNA do? Leaves nucleus and joins with ribosome in cytoplasm, where it can be used to synthesise a protein.
Created by: emm142