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GCSE Biology B2

What is the diference between a natural and an artificial ecosystem? A natural ecosystem is one where humans don't control the processes going on within it. An artificial ecosystem is oe where humans deliberately promote the growth of certain living organisms and get rid of others which threaten their well-being.
Name two different kingdoms. The animal kingdom and the plant kingdom.
What do all vertebrates have in common? They all have a backbone.
Name the five different types of vertebrates. There are fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
Why are euglena and archaeopteryx difficult to classify? Because the parents are different species - they are hybrids. This means they are not a new species.
In the binomial system each organism is given a two-part name. What does each part refer to? The first is the genus that the organism belongs to and the second part refers to the species.
What is a species? This is where two animals can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Where in the plant cell does photosynthesis take place? In the chloroplasts.
What is the word equation for photosynthesis? Carbon Dioxide + Water = glucose + Oxygen
What is the symbol equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Why is glucose easily transported around the plant? Why is starch a good storage of glucose? Glucose is soluble, which is good for transporting it around the plant. It is also a small molecule, so it can diffuse in and out of cells easily. Starch is insoluble which makes it good for storage. It doesn't bloat the storage cells by drawing in water.
Give three uses for glucose in plants. For respiration. This is because glucose releases energy so they can convert the rest of the glucose into other substances. Making cells walls. Glucose is converted into cellulose. It is used to make proteins. Combined with nitrates to make amino acids.
What are the three limiting factors in photosynthesis? The amount of light, carbon dioxide and temperature.
When do plants respire? This is only at night.
Name four things that animals will compete against each other for. They compete for food, water, the quality and amount of shelter they get and sunlight (this is for plants mostly)
What is the difference between a paracistic and mutualism? Parasites live off the host. They take what they need to survive and give nothing in return. This often harms the host. Mutualism is a relationship where both organisms benefit.
Name on way plants use for pollination? What features adapt them for each method? There is wind pollination. Wind pollinated plants have long, feathery stigmas to provide a large surface area to trap pollen. The pollen grains are ight and dry, which helps the wind carry them to the stigams.
Name the other way plants use for pollination. What features adapt them for this method? Insect pollinated plants have vibrantly coloured petals and sented nectar to attract insects. The pollen grains are large sticky so they stick to the insect.
Describe three ways in which fossils can form. By gradual replacement by minerals, from casts and impressions or fom preservation in places where no decay can happen (i.e. in amber).
Explain how fossils fond in rocks supports the theory of evolution. The theory of evolution suggests that all the animals and plants on Earth gradually "evolved" over millions of years, rather than just simply popping into existance.
Describe three examples of natural selection. Peppered moths changed their colour during the Industrial revolution, bacteria adapted to antibiotics, rats adapted to poison by devoloping a resistance to warfarin.
How did Lamarck's theory of evolution contrast to Darwin's? Larmark argued that if a characteristic was used enough then it would become more developed. He also argued that aquired characteristics could be passed onto the offspring.
Wha problems does a rapidly growing population create for a country? This puts more pressure on the environment by using up more resources and a higher standard of living amongst more developed countries demands even more resources.
What gas causes acid rain? Where does this gas come from? Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain and it comes from burnt coal, oil and natural gas.
What are indicator species? Give examples. This tells you if an area is polluted or not. Some species only live in unpolluted conditions. Lichens are used to moniter air quality - they arte damaged by pollution. Other species live in polluted conditions. Such as bloodworms and water lice.
Name five ways in which we are increasing the number of endangered species. The fossil fuels were are burning are thought to cause climate change. We are also destroying habitats, hunting animals, causing pollution and we are increasing competition between animals.
Name five ways in which we are trying to protect endangered species. Education programmes, protected habitats, legal protection, captive breeding and creating artificial ecosystems.
Why do environmentalists say we should be trying to implement conservation programmes? Because they don't just help endangered species, they also help humans.
What is sustainable development? Sustainable development meets the needs of today's population without harming the ability of furture generations to meet their own needs.
What are the commercial values of whales? They are a tourist attraction, and their meat and oil can be used in cosmetics.
What are the pros and cons of keeping whales in captivity? This allows whales to be bred in numbers and released back into the wild and research on captive whales can help us understand their needs better to help consrvation. But whales don't have much space in captivity and they are used to entertain people.
Created by: MychemicalMad
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