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BIOL 1030 Review 4

How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types? Connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.
Which of these describes loose connective tissue? It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material.
Cartilage is found _____. at the ends of bones such as the femur
_____ is the connective tissue specialized for transport. Blood
To increase the effectiveness of exchange surfaces in the lungs and in the intestines, evolutionary pressures have increased the surface area available for exchange.
Tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up organs.
An example of a connective tissue is the blood.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium is composed of several layers of box-like cells.
Connective tissues have relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix.
Fibroblasts secrete proteins for connective fibers
Bones are held together at joints by ligaments
The nucleus of a typical nerve cell is found in the cell body.
Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by smooth muscles.
Panting observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipates excess heat by evaporation
Which of these is a component of a human's appendicular skeleton? femur
What type of joint allows you to open and close your mouth? hinge
What type of joint allows you to shake your head "no"? pivot
What type of joint is found where the humerus joins the shoulder blade? ball and socket
During the course of muscle contraction the potential energy stored in ATP is transferred to potential energy stored in ________ . the myosin head
The release of _____ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is required for skeletal muscle contraction. calcium
Myosin heads bind to _____, which they then pull and cause to slide toward the center of the sarcomere. thin filaments
Of these events, the first to occur when a motor neuron stops sending an impulse to a muscle is _____ the pumping of calcium ions out of the cytoplasm and back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
The thick filaments of sarcomeres are composed of _____. myosin
The thin filaments of sarcomeres are composed of _____. actin
A single muscle cell is referred to as a _____. muscle fiber
What is the role of calcium in muscle contractions? bind to the troponin complex, which leads to the exposure of the myosin-binding sites
A sustained muscle contraction due to a lack of relaxation between successive stimuli is called tetanus.
When digested, proteins are broken down into _____. amino acids
When digested, fats are broken down into _____. both glycerol and fatty acids
Starch is a type of _____. polysaccharide
Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested. fructoses
Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch? amylase
Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____ maltose
Protein digestion begins in the _____ stomach
What is the main component of gastric juice? water
_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____. Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine
What acid is responsible for stomach acidity? hydrochloric acid
An animal that migrates great distances would obtain the greatest benefit from storing its energy as fats.
Animals require certain amino acids in their diet. An amino acid that is referred to as nonessential would be best described as one that can be made by the animal's body from other substances.
What is the substrate of salivary amylase? starch
Which of the following statements describes pepsin? It begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach.
Which of the following is true of bile salts? They emulsify fats in the duodenum.
Bacteria are beneficial to animal nutrition, including that of humans. Which of the following is among their greatest benefits to us? production of biotin and vitamin K
The pH of the stomach is low enough and the protease activity high enough that the cells of the stomach itself are at risk of self-digestion. This is prevented by which of the following? mucus secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells
In which group of animals would you expect to find a relatively long cecum? herbivores
Why are cattle able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material? They have cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs.
Coprophagy allows some animals to re-eat fecal material in order to recover more nutrients. In which of these animals would such behavior be displayed rabbits and their relatives
Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____. capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs
The _____ has(have) the thinnest walls. capillaries
Blood pressure is highest in the _____. aorta
Blood returns to the heart via the _____. pulmonary veins
Blood returns to the heart via the _____. left atrium
From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____. right atrium
From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____ posterior vena cava
Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have which of the following? a closed circulatory system
Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart? fishes
A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. From this point in the artery, how many capillary beds must this red blood cell pass through before it returns to the left ventricle of the heart? two
If the atrioventricular node could be surgically removed from the heart without disrupting signal transmission to the Purkinje fibers, what would be the effect? Atria and ventricles would contract at about the same time.
What would be the long-term effect if the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed were to become blocked? Fluid would accumulate in interstitial areas.
A blood vessel has the following characteristics: outer layer of connective tissue, a thick layer of smooth muscle with elastic fibers, no valves. It is which of the following? an artery
Human plasma proteins include which of the following? I. fibrinogen II. hemoglobin III. immunoglobulin I and III only
Which of the following is a function of plasma proteins in humans? maintenance of blood osmotic pressure
Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common? The exchange surfaces are moist.
Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs? Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize which of the following diffusion
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.
Why is the respiratory system of a bird more efficient than the human respiratory system? The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air.
The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate? carbon dioxide
Which of the following is a characteristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin? transports oxygen
How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans? bicarbonate ions in the plasma
A marine sea star was mistakenly placed in freshwater and it died. What is the most likely explanation for its death? The sea star is hyperosmotic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate.
The body fluids of an osmoconformer would be __________ with its __________ environment. isoosmotic; saltwater
The advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that urea is less toxic than ammonia
What is the main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds? uric acid
Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal which is conducive to the function of flight in terms of weight
Which group possess excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules? insects
The transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule is mainly a consequence of blood pressure in the capillaries of the glomerulus
Which structure passes urine to the renal pelvis? collecting duct
Which of the following processes of osmoregulation by the kidney is the least selective? filtration
Which one of the following is extremely important for water conservation in mammals? juxtamedullary nephrons
What is unique about transport epithelial cells in the ascending loop of Henle in humans? Their membranes are impermeable to water.
Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced. more concentrated urine
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable to water. collecting duct
Which structure increases the reabsorption of Na+ when stimulated by aldosterone? distal tubules
How does ADH function at the cellular level? It causes an increase in the number of aquaporin molecules of collecting duct cells.
A fertilized egg usually implants itself and develops in the _____. uterus
A rapid increase in the _____ level stimulates ovulation. luteinizing hormone
After ovulation, high levels of _____ inhibit _____ secretion. estrogen and progesterone ... FSH and LH
Developing ovarian follicles primarily secrete _____. estrogens
If there is fertilization, secretion of _____ by the early embryo maintains the corpus luteum. human chorionic gonadotropin
If there is no fertilization, degeneration of the corpus luteum results in a drop in _____, which results in the sloughing off of the uterus's endometrium. estrogen and progesterone
Ovulation usually occurs on or about day _____ of a 28-day ovarian cycle. 14
What is the usual site of the fertilization of an egg cell? oviduct
Sexual reproduction patterns include the example of hermaphroditism
Evidence that parthenogenic whiptail lizards are derived from sexually reproducing ancestors includes the requirement for male-like behaviors in some females before their partners will ovulate.
The junction of the upper vagina and the uterus is called the cervix.
In humans, the follicular cells that remain behind in the ovary following ovulation become a steroid-hormone synthesizing structure called the corpus luteum
The male and female structures that consist mostly of erectile tissue include penis and clitoris.
Testosterone is synthesized primarily by the Leydig cells
Human sperm cells first arise in the seminiferous tubules.
Increasing and holding the temperature of the scrotum by 2°C, near the normal body-core temperature, would reduce the fertility of the man by impairing spermatogenesis
The moment of orgasm is characterized by rhythmic contraction of many parts of the reproductive system
For the 10 days following ovulation in a nonpregnant menstrual cycle, the main source of progesterone is the corpus luteum.
Ovulation is the follicular response to a burst of secretion of LH.
Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located in _____. association with a cell's plasma membrane
Which of these is a nonsteroid hormone? epinephrine and oxytocin
How do nonsteroid hormones differ from steroid hormones? nonsteroid hormones act via signal transduction pathways; steroid hormones do not act via signal transduction pathways
Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor? estrogen
The primary reason steroid hormones usually act slowly is that _____. they turn genes on or off and it takes time for gene products to build up or become depleted
Steroid hormone-receptor complexes act in _____. the nucleus
What is the function of endocrine glands? They release hormones into the bloodstream for distribution around the body
True or false? The homeostatic system for blood calcium concentration is maintained by the hormones calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. True
True or false? The pancreas is responsible for producing hormones that maintain the homeostatic levels of glucose in the blood. True
How is the production of hormones such as thyroxine and estrogen regulated? The hypothalamus directs the anterior pituitary to produce hormones that then stimulate or inhibit the production of these hormones.
Gigantism, a condition characterized by exceptionally rapid growth, is sometimes caused by a tumor that induces the gland in which it develops to overproduce a certain hormone. Where would such a tumor be expected to grow? Pituitary Gland
Which of these glands secretes releasing hormones? hypothalamus
Which of these hormones are responsible for the "fight or flight" response to danger epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) triggers the release of _____ in response to stress glucocorticoids
_____ are the main male hormones. Androgens
What hormone promotes water retention by the kidneys? antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Which hormone opposes the action of parathyroid hormone? calcitonin
Which hormone stimulates hormone production by the ovaries and testes? luteinizing hormone (LH)
Which hormone stimulates milk production? prolactin
What is the mode of action of aspirin and ibuprofen? They inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins
A cell that contains proteins enabling a hormone to selectively bind to its plasma membrane is called a(n) target cell.
Only certain cells in the body are target cells for the steroid hormone aldosterone. Which of the following is the best explanation for why these are the only cells that respond to this hormone? Only target cells contain receptors for aldosterone.
Which combination of hormones helps a mother to produce milk and nurse her baby? oxytocin and prolactin
Iodine is added to commercially-prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies of this essential mineral. Which gland(s) require(s) iodine to function properly? thyroid
Which hormone exerts antagonistic action to PTH (parathyroid hormone)? calcitonin
What happens when beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into the blood? Body cells take up more glucose.
Which combination of gland and hormone would be linked to winter hibernation and spring reproduction in bears? pineal gland, melatonin
Which of the following stimulates the contraction of uterine muscle? oxytocin
Estradiol is an example of an estrogen.
A distinctive feature of the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones and steroid hormones is that these hormones bind to receptors inside cells.
The main target organs for tropic hormones are endocrine glands
Most of the organelles in a neuron are located in the cell body.
In the communication link between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle, the motor neuron is considered the presynaptic cell and the skeletal muscle is the postsynaptic cell.
The operation of the sodium-potassium "pump" moves sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
The "selectivity" of a particular ion channel refers to its permitting passage only to a specific ion.
Action potentials move along axons more rapidly in myelinated than in non-myelinated axons.
Action potentials are normally carried in only one direction: from the axon hillock toward the axon terminals. If you experimentally depolarize the middle of the axon to threshold, using an electronic probe, then two action potentials will be initiated, one going toward the axon terminal and one going back toward the hillock
In the sequence of permeability changes for a complete action potential, the first of these events that occurs is the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels.
Neurotransmitters are released from axon terminals via exocytosis.
The observation that the acetylcholine released into the junction between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle binds to a sodium channel and opens it is an example of a ligand-gated sodium channel
The major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the human brain is GABA.
Which of the following produces hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland? hypothalamus
The space between an axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron is called a(n) _____. synaptic cleft
Neurons store neurotransmitter molecules in vesicles located within _____. synaptic terminals
Created by: asculpepper



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