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General Fluency

Topics in Fluency

QuestionAnswer
What are the four major cartilages of the larynx? (ACT + E) Arytenoid, Criccoid. Thyroid, and Eppiglotis
What are the biological functions of the larynx? (SUVOC) Swallowing (closes the glottis), Upper body strength, Voicing, Opens the glottis (for breathing), and Coughing
What is the largest cartilage of the larynx? The thyroid cartilage
What are the 3 subsystems involved in voice production? Phonatory (vibration), Resonatory (nasophrengeal), and Respiratory (air pressure)
Extrinsic muscles of the larynx can be divided into what two types? Elevators and depressors
What is the function of the posterior crico-arytenoid (PCA) muscles? Which muscles abduct the vocal folds?
What are the criteria for diagnosing a voice disorder? When either the structure, function, or mechanism of the larynx no longer meet the speaker's voicing requirements one has this condition.
What is the definition of FRC? Functional Residual Capacity is the amount of air left in the lungs following a normal exhalation. FRC = ERV + RV
What is ERV? Expiratory Reserve Volume is the amount of additional air that can be pushed out at the end of a normal eshalation
What is RV? Residual Volume is the volume of sir left in the lungs after a maximal exhalation (cannot be pushed out).
What is the key factor in respiration for speech? The ability to maintain controlled exhalation is key.
What are the three types of breathing? (CAT) Clavicular, Abdominal (Diaphragmatic), and Thoracic
Where is Reinke's space located? This area is located in the superficial layer of the lamina propria.
What happens as the thoracic cavity increases in size? The pressure in the lungs (intrapulmonic pressure) falls below atmospheric pressure allowing air to move into the lungs when what occurs?
What two characteristics determine voice quality? The shape and configuration of the vocal tract
T/F: Males and females have different vocal tract configurations True
What is the Bernoulli Effect? The phenomenon that brings the vocal folds together to produce phonation. Air flows rapidly across the edges of the folds creating negative pressure which causes the folds to be pulled together.
What characteristics of the vocal folds determine frequency? Length, mass, and tension of vocal folds determine what?
What is the definition of Fundamental Frequency? The tone created by the vibration of the vocal folds BEFORE the air reaches the supralaryngeal cavity;lowest component frequency of a periodic wave;lowest partial in a complex sound wave.
What determines what the ear hears as pitch? The rate at which the glottis vibrates determines this...
What is the best examination tool to use for a laryngeal biomechanical exam? A flexible scope is the best tool to use for this type of exam.
What is the major advantage of using rigid videostroboscopy? The superior image quality is a hallmark of this tool for laryngeal exam.
In acoustics, how are frequency and intensity expressed? Frequency is expressed in Hz; Intensity is expressed in decibels (dB) and sound pressure level (SPL)
What is the definition of formant? A frequency region which reveals the concentration of relatively high degrees of acoustic energy found in vowels and voiced consonants.
Formants show the resonant qualities of which structures/systems? Laryngeal and pharyngeal systems; the oral and nasal tracts.
What is F2 a measure of (related to)? Formant related to tongue base function during phonation/voicing during speech
What is asymmetry? Videostroboscopy that demonstrates the vfs appearing to follow one another.
What was the reason for the development of the s/z ratio? The reason this measure was developed was to assess the effect of pathologies like vocal fold nodules on phonation.
Can the s/z ratio be used to diagnose pathology? No
T/F The s/z ratio is quite reliable with children but is not sensitive to vf nodules. False. This measure is not reliable with children.
The hour glass vf configuration is a hallmark of what condition? Vocal fold nodules can be diagnosed by the detection of what vf configuration?
What are some possible causes of an abrupt onset of voice disturbance? Psycho-emotional events (hysterical conversion response), injury resulting from shoddy intubation or surgery, neurological based dysphonia.
What are the frequency measurements that have been successfully used to compare patients to norms? Mean Fundamental Frequency (SFFo, Fo); Frequency Range; Standard Deviation of Fo
Can jitter be measured during connected speech. No, it can only be measured during sustained phonation.
What is the definition of phonation range? The absolute limits of frequency that a person can produce; Another name for vocal range
T/F Very few voice disturbances have a functional or compensatory component. False. Functional/compensatory components are usually found in those with this condition.
T/F The longer a vocal fold lesion is left untreated, the longer and more difficult the treatment will be--even if lesion is benign. True. Treatment will be difficult or extended if these are not dealt with in a timely manner.
What does TFL stand for? Trans-nasal fiber-optic laryngoscopy
Why is TFL the best method for identifying abnormal laryngeal biomechanics? This is the best method for identifying abnormal laryngeal biomechanics because it provides the ability to view lots of different behaviors such as speech, phonation, sniffing, swallowing, and singing.
T/F Vocal fold pathologies make it difficult if not impossible to calculate optimal pitch. True. Calculation of optimal pitch is made difficult if not impossible by the presence of ___________.
t/f There is a tremendous amount of data to document the validity or therapeutic efficacy of determining the optimal pitch. False. Optimal pitch validity/efficacy
What is the best laryngeal position for voice production? Lower laryngeal position is optimal for this function.
What is the best laryngeal position for swallowing? Higher laryngeal position is optimal for this function.
What are the primary signs of increased tension and strain in the larynx? (HERP) Hard glottal attack, elevated pitch, rigid or contracted muscles upon palpation, pain are all signs of what?
What tends to cause lowered pitch? Loading from additive tissue (laryngeal pathology) causes this change in voice production to occur.
What is the primary voice quality characteristic of someone who has vf nodules? Breathiness is the primary voice quality characteristic of someone who has ___________.
What are the characteristic voice quality signs of someone who has a vocal fold cyst? Intermittent raspy quality Intermittent breathy quality, and Normal or slightly elevated pitch are all voice quality characteristics of someone who has ___________.
Describe vocal fold polyps. Larger that vf nodules, vascular, usually unilateral, always result in asymmetrical vibration of vocal folds.
t/f VF nodules can, in rare cases, be cancerous. False. These are never cancerous because they have no blood supply
What causes vf nodules? Friction and trauma to the epithelial tissue causes these.
What is the best tool to use to diagnose intra-cordal cysts? A rigid scope is required to diagnose this condition because the greater magnification is essential (70 degrees, 90 degrees.
Created by: wyhanes