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# 2102 Exam 1 pt 3

### measuring forest products

Question | Answer |
---|---|

1. What is the difference between cruising and scaling? | cruising: measuring standing trees scaling: measuring logs or bolts (trees already cut) |

2. Derive K in BA = KD2, where BA is in sq.ft. and D in feet. | Pi/4 |

3. Derive K in BA = KD2, where BA is in sq.ft. and D in inches. | 0.005454 |

4. Derive K in BA = KD2, where BA is in m2. and D in cm. | 0.00007854 |

5. Compute cubic foot volume of a 8-ft. log, given that diameters at both ends are 14” and 15”, respectively | 116cu.Ft. |

6. Name all formulas to compute cubic-foot volume of a log. | Huber's: V = B1/2 L -3.5% Smalian's: V = (B + b) L / 2 9% Newton's: V = (B + 4 B1/2 + b) L / 6 0% |

7. Name the following shapes (part of a tree). | cone, cylinder, neiloid, parabaloid fustrum of cone, neiloid, parabaloid, (tops get cut off 1/2) |

8. What is the device used to measure volume of an object by submerging it in water? | xylometer |

9. Compute cord volume of a stack of wood measuring 4’ x 8’ x 10’. | Vcords = (Width x Height x Length) / 128 (all in feet) =2.5 Cords |

10. The solid wood content of a cord is 128 cu.ft. True or false? Explain. | Solid wood content: 60 - 95 cuft/cord. So this statement is false because the solid wood content is affected by bark thickness, bolt diameter, bolt length, straightness, knots, stacking. |

11. Assume that 25% is air, how many cu.ft. of solid wood in a cord? | 1 cord = 128 cuft 25% of 128= 1/4 of 128= 32 cuft 1 cord = (128-32) cu ft =96ft^3 solid wood in 1 cord |

12. Assume that 25% is air, how many cords are there to contain 100 cu.ft. of solid wood? | 25% of 100= 25cu ft = 75 cu ft 128 = 1 cord 75cu ft = X cord 128x = 75 75/128 = 0.5859 cords |

13. What is 1 MBF of wood? | Pine: 1 MBF = 16,000 lbs Hardwood: 1 MBF = 19,000 lbs |

14. True or false? Solid wood content of a stack of wood increases with stick length. Solid wood content of a stack of wood increases with average bolt diameter. | false true |

15. Why is weight used now instead of volume in most lumber and paper mills? | -good for irregular solids (pulpwood) where volume is difficult to obtain - for pulpwood, the product (pulp) is expressed in weight - faster - encourages delivery of freshly cut wood to the mill |

16. An entry in Scribner Decimal C table is 12. What is the volume of that log? Be sure to include unit. | V = 90.8 unit??? |

17. There are two broad types of log rules. a. _______________ log rules: example(s) is (are): b. _______________ log rules: example(s) is (are): | Diagram: Scribner log rule Mathematical: Doyle log rule, International log rule |

18. If the volume of a log from a log rule table was found to be 35 bd.ft., but volume of the boards sawn from that log totaled 42 bd.ft., what is the overrun/underrun percent? | 100 x (mill tally - log scale) / (log scale) =1.6% underrun |

19. Doyle log rule results in overruns for _________ (small, large) logs and underruns for __________ (small, large) logs. Explain why. | Overrun for small logs and underrun for large logs (due to 4" slabbing allowance) |

20. What is the difference between International-1/4” and International-1/8”? | International-1/4": modified from International-1/8" |

21. Draw a diagram that compares the log rules. What are the scaling diameters where they intersect one another? | Comparison: - Scribner: always underscale >equal at 25". - Doyle: between 26" and 36" >equal at 28-29". - Int 1/4": very good. |

22. In Doyle log rule construction, the first step was to assume a square cant from the log. What are the dimensions of this cant? | D- 4 inches |

23. True or false? Doyle volume is always lower than International-1/4”. Scribner volume is always lower than International-1/4”. Doyle volume is always lower than Scribner. | True True False |

24. From the following diagram, do you call it a crook or a sweep? | crook has a little bump in it. sweep has scoliosis, its bent |

25. When you scale logs, you have to know the __________ (minimum, maximum) scaling diameter and the __________ (minimum, maximum) scaling length. | minimum scaling diameter maximum scaling length |

26. What is a scaling diameter? | small end (ib) |

27. What is a scaling length? | 2" intervals, trim allowance 2"-6" |

28. True or false? Scaling defects include those imperfections that will result in losses of wood volume and log quality. Explain why. | True. The imperfections include crooks and sweeps these reduce timber volume. However, do not reduce timber quality. |