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Biology Study Guide

Module 16-Study Guide

1a. Amniotic egg A shelled, water-retaining egg that allows reptile, bird, and certain mammal embryosto develop on land.
1b. Neurotoxin A poison that attacks the nervous system, causing blindness, paralysis, or suffocation.
1c. Hemotoxin A poison that attacks the red blood cells and blood vessels, destroying circulation.
1d. Endothermic An organism that is internally warmed by a heat-generating metabolic process.
1e. Down feathers Feathers used for insulation.
1f. Contour feathers Feathers used for flight.
1g. Placenta A structure that allows an embryo to be nourished with the mother's blood supply.
1h. Gestation The period of time that it takes an embryo to develop from fertilization to birth.
1i. Mammary Glands Milk glands used for nutrition of the newborn and very young.
2. State the five characteristics that set reptiles apart from other vertebrates. 1.Ectothermic 2.Covered with tough, dry scales 3.Breathe with lungs throughout their lives. 4.Three-chambered heart with a ventricle that is partially divided. 5.Produce amniotic eggs covered with a leathery shell, most oviparous, some ovoviviparous.
3.In this module, we studied reptiles, birds and mammals. For each class, indicate whether they are ectothermic or endothermic. Reptiles-ectothermic, Birds-endothermic, Mammals-endothermic
4. Identify the parts of the amniotic egg: a. Amniotic fluid b. Embryo c. Amnion d. Allantois e. Chorion f. Yolk sac g. Yolk h. Albumen i. Shell
5. State the functions of the yolk, the allantois, and the albumen. Yolk-to feed the embryo. Allantois-a sac of blood vessels that allows for the respiration and excretion of the embryo. Albumen-protects the embryo from bacteria and other pathogens.
6. Reptiles have a growth-related characteristic in common with the arthropods. What is it? They both molt because their body covering is not living.
7. What are the two most important functions of reptile scales? Prevent water loss and insulation.
8.These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles:Rhynchocephalia,Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines.Place the following types of reptiles into their appropriate order: a.snakes b.tuataras c.lizards d.tortoises e.alligators f.turtles Rhynchocephalia-tuatara. Squamata-snakes, lizards. Crocodilia-alligators. Testudines-turtles, tortoises.
9. State the six characteristics that set birds apart from other vertebrates. 1.Endothermic. 2.Heart with 4 chambers. 3.Toothless bill. 4.Oviparous, laying anamniotic egg that is covered in a lime-containing shell. 5.Covered with feathers. 6.Skeleton composed of porous, lightweight bones (not a characteristic for all birds)
10. Do all birds fly? No
11. A blood sample comes from the ventricle of an animal that is either an amphibian or a bird. How can you tell which? If the bloof sample has a mixture of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood, it comes from an amphibian. If it has only one or the other, it comes from a bird.
12. Which has a harder shell: the egg of a reptile or the egg of a bird? Bird
13. You see some barbs from a feather. You have no idea whether they came from a down feather or a contour feather. Looking at the barbs under the microscope, however, you see that there are no hooked barbules. What kind of feather is it? Down feather
14. What type of feather (down or contour) is used for flight? What kind is used for insulation? Flight-contour, Insulation-down
15. What is a bird actually doing when it is preening? Oiling its feathers.
16. What is unique about a bird's method of molting? Each feather on one side of the bird's body will molt at exactly the same time as the corresponding feather on the other side of its body.
17. What three things (at least) did flight engineers have to learn from birds to make practical flight possible? 1.Wings are a key to flight ability 2.Use of an alula (wing slot) to reduce turbulence 3.Use of lightweight and hollow materials to construct the plane, reinforced with struts.
18. Which is heavier, a bird's bone or the same size bone from an amphibian? The same size bone from an amphibian.
19. State the five characteristics that set mammals apart from other vertebrates. 1.Hair covering the skin. 2.Reproduce with internal fertilization and usually viviporous 3.Nourish their young with milk secreted from specialized glands. 4.Four-chambered heart 5.Endothermic
20. What is the principal function of underhair? Underwear? To keep them warm. To insulate.
21. What do we usually see when we look at a mammal, underhair or guard hair? Guard hair
22. Name a nonplacental mammal. Kangaroo
23. What is the main difference between offspring born after a long gestation period and offspring born after a short gestation period? Offspring born after a long gestation period are more developed than those born after a short gestation period.
Created by: LiseBrinkley