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Preop Medications

Identify the Class and Use of Common Pre-op Drugs

QuestionAnswer
Midazolam (Versed) Benzodiazepine - preoperative sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia
Diazepam (Valium) Benzodiazepine - preoperative sedation, conscious sedation (provides light anesthesia and retorgrade amnesia)
lorazepam (Ativan) Benzodiazepine - preoperative sedation, decrease preoperative anxiety and provide amnesia
Morphine Opioid - Relieve discomfort during preoperative procedures
meperidine (Demoral) Opioid - Relieve discomfort during preoperative procedures
fentanyl (Sublimaze) Opioid - Relieve discomfort during preoperative procedures
cimetidine (Tagament) H2 receptor blockers - Decrease HCL acid secretion, Increase gastric PH, Decrease gastric volume
famotidine (Pepcid) H2 receptor blockers - H2 receptor blockers - Decrease HCL acid secretion, Increase gastric PH, Decrease gastric volume
ranitidine (Zantac) H2 receptor blockers - H2 receptor blockers - Decrease HCL acid secretion, Increase gastric PH, Decrease gastric volume
metoclopramide (Reglan) Antiemetics - Increase gastric emptying, decrease N&V, prevent N&V
droperidol (Inapsine) antiemetic - Increase gastric emptying, decrease N&V, prevent N&V
ondansetron (Zofran) antiemetic - Increase gastric emptying, decrease N&V, prevent N&V
Atropine Anticholinergics - Decrease oral and respiratory secretions; prevent bradycardia
glycopyrrolate (Robinul) Anticholinergics - Decrease oral and respiratory secretions; prevent bradycardia
scopolamine anticholinergics - produce amnesia, decrease salivation and respiratory secretions
What drug classes are used for preoperatively for their sedative and amnesic properties? Benzodiazepines and barbiturates
What drug class decreases secretions? Anticholinergic
What drug class decreases nausea and vomiting? antiemetics
What may be given prophylacticly to prevent cardiac endocarditis? Antibiotics
Which patients may need prophylactic antibiotics before surgery? those with a history of congenital, rheumatic, or valvular heart disease or patient's surgery puts them at increased risk for infection (GI surgery) or wound infection would pose serious consequences (cardiac, joint replacement)
What kind of surgery often require preoperative eye drops every 5 minutes? Eye surgery
When should patient's be given preoperative oral meds? 60-90 minutes before OR unless otherwise ordered - just a little water for swallowing if fluid restricted
When are preoperative IM or SC meds given? 30 - 60 minutes before OR (minimally 20 minutes)
When are IV medications given to the preoperative patient? Usually after arrival in the preoperative holding area or operating room
What should we tell patients about the preoperative meds? What effects to expect: drowsiness, dry mouth, relaxation ect
Name 2 preoperative drug types that might be used for sedative and amnesic properties. benzodiazepines and barbiturates
What kind of preoperative medication is used to decrease anesthesia requirements and decrease pain? Opioids
What kind of preoperative drugs are used to decrease secretions? anticholinergics
What kind of drugs are used to decrease nausea and vomiting? antiemetics
Name three other types of drugs that may be given preoperatively. Antiboitics, eyedrops, and the patient's routine medications