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DHYG Radiology

Radiology for National Board

The energy of photons produced in an x-ray machine is dependent upon? KVP
The speed at which electrons move across an x-ray tube is regulated by? Kilovoltage
Changing from 75kVp to 90kVp will? decrease x-ray density
What allows for greater penetration of x-rays? increased kVp
What describes radiographic film that has many gradation of gray from totally white to black? low contrast or many shades of gray
Both milliampere setting and exposure time determine what? the number of x-rays produced
A radiograph is taken with an exposure time of 30 impulses, what is the exposure time in seconds? 60 impulses= 1 sec 1/2 second
What is the principal factor that controls x-ray penetration? Wavelength
According to the inverse square law, if distance is doubled what happens to the exposure time? X 4
What happens to the intensity when you switch from an 8" to a 16" cone? decreases by 4
Radiation film fog may be caused by secondary radiation
What is the direct effect of radiation when a photon contacts outer orbital electrons called? Thomson scattering
What is the transfer of all energy; ionization of inner electron? Direct effect: Photoelectric
What is the transfer of partial energy; ionization of outer shell electron and the production of scatter radiation. Direct effect: Compton effect
Name the most sensitive tissue to the least sensitive to radiation? Reproductive, lymphatic, young bone, circulatory, endocrine respiratory, digestive mature bone, nervous
What is the maximum permissible dose for occupational exposure 5 rem/year .05 Sv or 50 mSv
What thickness is required for the patient's lead apron? .25 mm
Regarding film speed, what is the rule for exposure time and film speed D-E? decrease exposure time by 1/2
Regarding film speed, what is the rule for exposure time and film speed E-F? decrease exposure time by 20%
What is the purpose of the collimator/lead diaphragm? to limit the size and shape of the beam to 2.75
What PID reduces scatter rays? Long cone/rectangular
What is the purpose of filtering an x-ray beam? remove low energy photons
Which projection is required to aid localization of an impacted maxillary premolar after periapical radiographs? Maxillary occlusal projection
What is the purpose of using intensifying screens? reduction of exposure time
If the temperature of processing solutions is slightly above normal, radiographs of desired density may be best obtained by? decreasing developing time
In developing radiographs, what does the fixer do? remove unexposed silver halide and shrink and harden the emulsion
what is the major difference between automatic and manual processing of radiographs? Auto requires special solutions at higher temps
Name the technical error with too much vertical angulation. Foreshortening
Name the technical error for incorrect cone or film placement cone cut
What is the effect on a radiograph if the film is placed backwards? herringbone
If you fail to completely submerse film in the developer what processing error would you have? clear area
If you fail to completely submerse your film in the fixer what processing error occurs a black streak
Scatter radiation, improper safe light and light leak all cause what processing error? Film fog
Created by: aheflin