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NASM CES

QuestionAnswere
Muscles involved in the Anterior Oblique subsystem (AOS) Internal Oblique and adductor complex, external oblique and hip external rotators
Function of anterior oblique subsystem provides transverse plane stabilization and force transmission * necessary for functional activities involving the trunk and extremities *Provides rotation of the pelvis *provides dynamic stabilization of lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
Muscles involved in the lateral subsystem (LS) Gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae, adducor complex and quadratus lumborum
Function of lateral subsystem (LS) frontal plan stability and pelvo-femoral stability,
Dysfunction in the Lateral subsystem (LS) is evident by increased pronation of the knee, hip, or feet during walking, squats, lunges or climbing chairs
Unwanted frontal plane movement is characterized by decreased strength and neuromuscular control in the lateral subsystem (LS)
The anterior subsystem (AOS) functions in the in which plane transverse
Force couple the synergistic action of a muscle to produce movement around a joint
length tension relationships the resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce while resting
The global stabilization subsystem in predominantly responsible for LPHC stabilization and eccentric deceleration
The global stabilization subsystem consists of superficial musculature that originates from the pelvis to the ribcage, the lower extremities or both
The major muscles of the global stabilization subsystem rectus abdominis, external obliques, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, psoas, and adductors
The global stabilization subsystem muscles are predominately larger and associated with movement of the trunk and limbs
The global stabilization subsystem equalizes external loads placed upon the body
The muscles of the global stabilization subsystem are important in transferring and absorbing forces from the upper and lower extremities to the pelvis (eccentric deceleration)
The global movement system is predominately responsible for concentric force production (acceleration)
The muscles that make up global movement system gastrocnemius, hamstrings, quadriceps, gluteus maximus, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major
The local muscular system or local stabilization system consists of muscles that are primarily involved in joint support or stabilization
The local muscular system or local stabilization system joint support muscles are not movement specific
The local muscular system or local stabilization system joint support muscles provide stability to allow joint movement
Overhead squat anterior view, feet turn out probable overactive muscles soleus, lat. gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, tensor fascia late
Overhead squat anterior view, feet turn out probable under active muscles med gastrocnemius, med hamstring, gluteus medius/maximus, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus
Overhead squat anterior view, feet move inward probable overactive muscles adductor complex, biceps femoris, TFL, lat gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis
Overhead squat anterior view, feet move inward probable underactive muscles med hamstring, med gastrocnemius, gluteus medius/maximus, vastas medialis
Overhead squat anterior view, feet move outward probable overactive muscles piriformis, bicep femoris, TFL, gluteus medius/maximus
Overhead squat anterior view, feet move outward probable under active muscles adductor complex, med hamstring, gluteus maximus
overhead squat assessment lateral view, LPHC, excessive forward lean probable overactive muscles soleus, gastrocnemius, hip flexor complex, abdominal complex
overhead squat assessment lateral view, LPHC, excessive forward lean probable under active muscles anterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, erector spinae
overhead squat assessment lateral view, LPHC, low back arches probable overactive muscles hip flexor complex, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi
overhead squat assessment lateral view, LPHC, low back arches probable under active muscles gluteus maximus, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, psoas, intrinsic core, stabilzers
overhead squat assessment lateral view, LPHC, arms fall forward probable overactive muscles latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major/minor, teres major, corcobrachialis
overhead squat assessment lateral view, upper body, arms fall forward probable under active muscles mid/lower trapezius, rhomboids, rotator cuff, posterior deltoid
overhead squat assessment posterior view, feet flatten probable over active muscles peroneal complex (peroneus tertius, peroneus brevis, peroneus longus) biceps femoris, TFL, lat gastrocnemius
overhead squat assessment posterior view, feet flatten probable under active muscles posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis, med gastrocnemius, gluteus medius, med hamstring
overhead squat assessment posterior view, heels rise probable under active muscles anterior tibialis
over head squat assessment posterior view, asymmetrical weight shift probable under active muscles gluteus medius (on one side) adductor complex (opposite side of shift)
over head squat assessment posterior view, asymmetrical weight shift probable over active muscles adductor complex, TFL, piriformis, bicep femois (short head) gluteus medius (opposite of shift)
sensorimotor intergration ability of the central nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information to execute the proper motor response
motor learning the integration of these motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent chance in the capacity to produce skilled movements
scapular stabilizers during squats trapezius, rhomoids, cervical stabilizers
lumbo hip complex stabilizers during squats adductor longus, adductor brevis, transverse abdominus, gluteus medius
lower extreme stabilizers during squats flexor hallicus longus, poeterior tibialis, anterior tibialis, soleus, gastrocnemius
prime movers during squats quadiceps, gluteus maximus
synergist during squats hamstring, adductor magnus, gastronemius, soleus complex, posterior tibialis
stabilizers during bench press rotator cuff, biceps
synergists during bench press anterior deltoid, triceps
prime movers during bench press pectoralis major
one form of sensory afferent iformation that uses mechanoreptors from cutaneous muscle, tendon, and joint receptors to provide information about static and dynamic positions, movements, and sensations related to muscle force and movement proprioception
the cumulative neural input from sensory afferents to the central nervous system Lephart definition of proprioception
common static malalignments poor posture, joint hypomobility, myofascial adhesions.
one of the most common cause of pain joint dysfunction (hypomobility)
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat, feet flatten probable over active muscles soleus, lat gastrocnemius, bicpes femoris, TFL
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat, feet flatten probable under active muscles med gastrocnemius, med hamstring, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat,knees move inward probable under active muscles med hamstring, med goastrocenemius, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat,knees move inward probable over active muscles piriformis, bicep femoris, TFL, gluteus minimus, gluteus medius
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat, LPHC hip hike probable over active muscles quadratus lumborum (opposite side), TFL, gluteus minimus (same side)
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat, LPHC hip hike probable under active muscles adductor complex (same side), gluteus medius (same side)
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat, LPHC hip drop probable under active muscles gluteus medius (same side) quadratus lumbrum (opposite side)
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat,upper body inward trunk rotation probable over active muscles internal oblique (same side) external oblique opposite side, TFL same side, adductor complex(same side)
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat,upper body inward trunk rotation probable under active muscles internal oblique opposite side, external oblique same side, gluteus medius gluteus maximus
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat,upper body outward trunk rotation probable under active muscles internal oblique same side, external oblique opposite side, adductor complex same side, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus
compensations for the anterior view of the single leg squat,upper body outward trunk rotation probable over active muscles inernal oblique opposite side, external oblique same side, piriformis same side
used to alleviate the side effects of active or latent trigger points self-myofascial release
used to influence the autonomic nervous system self-myofascial release
believed to stimulate the golgi receptors through sustained pressure at a specific intensity, amount, and duration to produce produces an inhibitory response to the muscle spindle and decrease gamma loop self-myofascial release
ischemic compression pressure from an object
can reduce trigger-point and sensitivity in individuals ischemic compression
makes it possible for a tissue to receive adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients as well as removal of waste byproducts through circulation to speed tissue recovery and repair increasing vasodilation
allows for better tissue dynamics, which may provide better overall muscle contraction and joint motion changing the viscosity
reduces faulty contraction of muscle of muscle tissue that can lead to cumulative injury cycle decreasing sympathetic tone
can lead to better oxygen content in blood and deceases feeling of anxiety and fatigue improving respiration
can alter the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of blood, perpetuating dysfunctional breathing and leading to synergist dominance of secondary breathing muscles faulty breathing patterns
the influences of the effect neuromyofascia release or pressure and tension has on the autonomic nervous system are 1. the fluid properties of tissue the effect the viscosity 2. the hypothalamus, which increases vagal tone and decreases global muscle tonus 3. smooth muscle cells in fascia that may be related to regulation of fascal pretension
viscosity resistance to flow or motion
vagal tone The effect produced on the heart when only the parasympathetic nerve fibres (which are carried in the vagus nerve) are controlling the heart rate.
The parasympathetic nerve fibres slow the heart rate from approximately 70 beats per minute to 60 beats per minute.
Viscosity may be thought of as fluid friction. Viscosity also acts internally on the fluid between slower and faster moving adjacent layers.
existing or occurring with something else, often in a lesser way; accompanying; concurrent: an event and its concomitant circumstances. concomitant
inhibitory techniques self-myofascial release
lengthen techniques static stretching, neuromuscular stretching
activation techniques positional isometrics, isolated strengthening
integration techniques integrated dynamic movement
the elongation of neuromyofascial tissue to an end to end range holding the position for a given period a characterization of static stretching
maximal control of a structured ligament a characterization of static stretching
minimal acceleration into and out of the elongated (stretch position) a characterization of static stretching
static stretching appears to affect the viscoelastic component of neuromyofascial tissue
feedback circuit that can decrease the excitability of motor neurons by way of the inter-neuron called the renshaw cell recurrent inhibition
reciprocal inhibition. What happens here is that if a muscle contracts, the opposite or antagonistic muscle will relax to allow the movement to occur without resistance.
what provides information on tension increases in muscles. Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO)
connects with a small nerve cell in the spinal cord that inhibits or relaxes the muscle Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO)
Reflex inhibition of a motor unit in response to excessive tension in the muscle fibres it supplies. Muscle tension is monitored by the Golgi tendon organs. Autogenic inhibition
s a protective mechanism, preventing muscles from exerting more force than the bones and tendons can tolerate. Autogenic inhibition
small cells that reduce motor neuron discharge through a feedback circuit involving axon collaterals that excite interneurons. The system prevents rapid repeated firing of motor neurons. Renshaw cells
used to increase intramuscular coordination of specific muscles isolated stretching
isolated stretching can be performed immediately following inhibitory and lengthening techniques
proximal injuries of patellar tendentious low back pain
distal injuries of patellar tendentious planter fasciitis
proximal injuries of IT-band tendentious (runner's knee) hamstring, quadriceps, and groan strains
distal injuries of IT-band tendentious (runner's knee) achilles tendentious
proximal injuries of medial, lateral, and anterior knee pain shoulder and upper-extremity injuries
distal injuries of medial, lateral, and anterior knee pain posterior tibialis tendonitis (shin splints)
probable over active muscles on the compensation of knees that adduct and internally rotate lat gastrocnemius, adductor complex, biceps femoris, rectus femors, TFL, vastus lateralis
probable under active muscles on the compensation of knees that adduct and internally rotate med gastrocnemius, med hamstring, vastus medialis (VMO) gluteus medius, gluteus maximus
what bones make up the tibofemoral joint tibia, femur
what bones make up the patellofemoral joint patella and femus
what bones make up the iliofemoral joint femur, pelvis
what bones make up the sacroiliac joint sacrum and pelvis
what bones make up the talocrural (ankle) joint tibia and fibula
pronation rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
Rotation of a body part (usually the hand or foot) backward, inward or downward. pronation
a slight inward rolling motion the foot makes during a normal walking or running stride. The foot (and ankle) rolls slightly inward to accomodate movement. pronation
In inversion, the sole of the foot is directed medially.
the sole is turned so that it faces laterally eversion
iversion of the ankle sole of the foot is towards the opposite foot
eversion of the ankle sole is turns outwards away from the body
squat to overhead press, step-up to overhead press, romanian deadlift with overhead press are examples of integrated dynamic movement exercises
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet turn out probable over active muscles soleus, lat gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, TFL,
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet turn out probable under active muscles med gastrocnemius, med hamstring, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet turn out probable injuries planter fasciities, posterior tibialis tendonitis (shin splints, patellar tendonitis (jumpers knee)
on an overhead squat assessment, if the feet turn out they may have the following injuries planter fasciities, posterior tibialis tendonitis (shin splints, patellar tendonitis (jumpers knee)
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet move inward probable over active muscles adductor complex, biceps femoris, short head, TFL, lat gastrcnemius, vastas lateralis
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet move inward probable under active muscles med hamstring, med gastrocnemius, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastas medialis, oblique (VMO)
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet move inward probable injuries anterior, medial& lateral knee pain, IT band tendonitis
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet move outward probable injuries anterior, medial& lateral knee pain, IT band tendonitis
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet move outward over active muscles piriformis, biceps femoris, tfl, gluteus minimus, gluteus medius
over head squat movement assessment compensations, anterior view feet move outward over under active muscles adductors complex, med. hamstring, gluteus maximus
over head squat assessment posterior view, feet flatten probable over active muscles peroneal complex, peroneus, peroneus brevis, bicep femoris, tfl, lat gastrocnemius
over head squat assessment posterior view, feet flatten probable under active muscles posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis, med gastrocnemius, gluteus medius, med hamstrings
over head squat assessment posterior view, heels rise probable under active muscles anterior tibialis
over head squat assessment posterior view, asymmetrical weight shift probable under active muscles gluteus medius (on side of shift), adductor complex (opposite of shift)
muscles that tend to be over active in the lower leg accompanying foot and ankle impairments lateral gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus
muscles that tend to be under active in the lower leg accompanying foot and ankle impairments med gastrocnemius, posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis
what muscle concentrically planterflex ankle, evert calcaneus, externally rotate lower leg, and flex knee lateral gastrocemius
what muscle concentrically planterfex ankle, externally rotate (supinate) lower leg, and assists in knee extension soleus
what muscles concentrially evert ankle, planterflex ankle peroneus longus
what muscle planterflex ankle, invert calcaneus, internally rotate lower leg, and flex knee medial gastrocemius
what muscle planterfex ankle, externally rotate (supinate) lower leg, invert foot/ankle posterior tibialis
what muscle concentrically invert ankle, dorsiflex ankle anterior tibialis
overactive muscles of LPHC accompanying foot and ankle impairment biceps femoris short head, TFL
under ractive muscles of LPHC accompanying foot and ankle impairment mdial hamstrings, gracilis, sartoius, popliteus, gluteus medius (posterior fibers) and gluteus maximus
Over active muscles of the LPHC for knee impairment adductor complex, biceps femoris short head, tfl, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris
under active muscles of the LPHC for knee impairment medial hampstrings, gluteus medius (posterioer fibers) and gluteus maximus, vastus medialis
local injuries associated with LPHC impairment low back pain, sacroiliac joint dysfuction, hamsring, quadriceps and groan strains
injuries above the LPHC associated with LPHC impairment shoulder and upper extremity injuries
injuries below the LPHC associated with LPHC impairment patellar tendonities (jumpers knee) IT-band tendonitis (runners knee) medial, lateral, and anteior knee pain, planter fasciitis, achiles tendonitis, posterior tibialis tendonitis (shin splints)
Created by: dinglespp