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ComDis 240

Exam 2

Protoconversations type of ritual/game play between mother & infant, contains initial elements of emerging conversation, several phases
Characteristics of first words animals, foods and toys Ex: child would say "doggie" not "beagle"
Major accomplishments of the Emerging Language Stage Pragmatics: expansion of communicative functions Semantics: core lexicon (most important) Phonology: "first 50 words" Morphology: beginning use of word endings such as bound morphemes (-s, -ing) Syntax: really none, start to develop noun and verb phra
2 types of consonants Front Consonants: p,b,t,d,m,w,n Back Consonants: k,g,h
Phonological Structure/word structure of first words -1 to 2 syllables -phonological shapes VC, CV, CVCV reduplicated -very few CVC words, modified in production and children use "final consonant deletion" and "epenthesis
Piaget (who is he, and what did he do?) -he studied behavior, and came up with the 4 periods of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Period (0-24mos) 2. Pre-operational Period (2yrs-7yrs) 3. Concrete Operations Period (7-12yrs) 4. Formal Operations Period (12 yrs & older)
Associative Hypothesis and who came up with it Vygotsky, 1962 -each example of a meaning category shares a commonality with a core concept Ex: common elements in meanings of pants, shirt, shoes and hat are classified in the "clothing" category
Relational Words -relationship an entity shares with itself or with other entities Ex: "all gone" can refer to an empty drink or a vacant dog house
Overextensions -meanings too broad when compared to the adult meaning Ex: little girl refers to all men as "daddy" -common expressively, makes up 1/3 of first 75 words Why? perceptual similarities
Perlocutionary Stage Age: 0-8mos -Little intentionality -intention assigned by adults
Illocutionary Stage Age: 8-12mos -baby begins to use gestures, vocalizations, or both to communicate -gestures are used for a goal -gestures = cognitive ability to develop a plan to achieve a goal
Underextensions -overly restricted meanings Ex: only kind of cup is my "sippy" cup -common receptively and expressively
Vocab Spurt (Changes/Characteristics) (Age/How many words) 6 mos- 50 to 300 words Plateaus- new words in 1 week Vocab Spurt- happens age 18-24 mos
Core Lexicon first 50 words are critical by 18 months
Lexicon personal dictionary/ vocabulary
2 types of lexicon expressive: what you use receptive: what you understand, always larger understanding than actual use of words
Baby Behaviors that Affect Bonding 1. Responsiveness- mom's face & voice 2. Sleep Wakefulness 3. General Mood 4. Adaptability to Change 5. Approach-withdraw
Functional-core Hypothesis Nelson, 1977 -child derives word and concept meaning from "motion features" of the referent -meaning of a word is based upon use, how it acts, and how it can be acted upon
Vocab Spurt Age: 18-24mos Happens: after first 100 words are acquired -girls are faster to produce first words and understand more words Age 2: expressive lexicon is 200-300 words
Maternal Behaviors that Affect Bonding (5) 1. Responsiveness- over or under response undermines the attachment 2. Playfulness 3. Sensitivity 4. Encouragement 5. Pacing
PSA (What is it and who discovered it) Primitive Speech Act: a single gesture or a single vocal/verbal pattern that conveys intention -universal, each utterance = 1 intention Discovered by Dore 1974
Infant-caregiver Bonding -determined by the quality of I-C interactions -several factors -mother and baby play a role
Locutionary Stage Age: 12 mos and up -begins with first meaningful word -intentionality is coded in words with or without gestures
Baby Talk speech/language addressed to infants
3 common ways used to classify first words 1. Pragmatic function of the single word utterances 2. grammatical function 3. meaning
Substantive Words -mainly make up single-word vocabularies -refer to specific entities that have shared features usually nouns -Agents & Objects
Agents the source of action
Object the recipient of an action
What can make a child difficult to understand? use of phonological processes
General Nominals -label individual objects that move or can be acted upon -can also label individual people or animals in the environment *51% of core lexicon
Gaze-Coupling turn-taking interaction using eye contact
Prototypic Complex Hypothesis Bowerman 1978 -child identifies features that distinguish the prototypic referent of a word from other words Ex: a child's prototype for word/concept "flower" may be dandelion -can lead to underextensions
Lexically Precocious -much more words, smart, very perceptive, surrounded by sophisticated adults -use grammar quickly -grammar development tied to lexicon size than chronological age Ex: people who read more are better writers
3 Major Semantic Milestones 1. 1-3 words by 12mos 2. 10 words by 15mos 3. Core Lexicon 50 words by 18mos
Stages of Communication Intentionality (3) 1. Perlocutionary Stage 2. Illocutionary Stage 3. Locutionary Stage
Motherese/Parentese -speech/language addressed to toddlers
Semantic-feature hypothesis Clark 1975 -referents are defined by their features such as animate/inanimate, human/nonhuman -children use perceptual attributes to establish meaning
Nelson, what did he discover? -he did the diary study of a child's first 50 words -found that nominal nouns predominate 65% -2 types general and specific
Specific Nominals -specifically name individual people, animals or locations -less frequency than general nominals -still compromise a large percentage of core lexicon
Object Permanence -knowledge that objects continue to exist when one is not perceiving them -linked with language acquisition
Semantic Categories (Who discovered it and 2 types) -discovered Bloom and Lahey 1978 2 types 1. Substantive Words 2. Relational Words
Mutual Gaze -looking at each other -signals are greater than attention compared with joint attention -important for formation of attachment/bonding
Emerging Language Stage -children begin to produce first true words Age: 12/18-24mos
Semantic Learning Theories of how words and concepts are acquired Semantic feature hypothesis, functional core hypothesis, associative hypothesis, prototypic complex hypothesis
Communication Routines -provide consistent set of behaviors that teach children to predict and signal intent to participate
JR Joint Reference: talking about the same thing
JA Joint Action: both engaging in a task
TT Turn Taking: teaches how to anticipate and predict
Created by: msrachel



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