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Mr. Wills Holt Ch10

What are three reasons why cells reproduce? cell size(too large),cell maintenance, to grow
Gene segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
Chromosome a section of DNA that becomes highly condensed and visible during mitosis
Chromatin substance containing DNA and protein that makes up the chromosome
Chromatid one of two identical copies of DNA in a chromosome
Sister chromatids two identical copies of DNA that form the “X” of a chromosome during mitosis
Centromere region of the chromosome that holds the sister chromatids together.
Daughter cells two genetically identical cells produced by cell division
What are three characteristics of prokaryotic cell division? simple, small amount of circular DNA, 20 min
Centrioles structure that form spindle fibers and organize the chromosmes
Spindle fibers microtubules(protein) that move chromosomes during mitosis
What are three characteristics of eukaryotic cell division? more complex, lots of linear DNA pieces (chromosomes), 24 hours
Interphase the first three phases on the cell cycle
G1 Phase first gap phase of the cc that the cell grows
S Phase Synthesis phase of the cc that DNA is copied
G2 Phase second gap phase, preparation for mitosis centrioles form
Mitosis phase of the cc that the chromosomes are separated
Prophase 1. Nuclear envelope dissolves, 2. Centrioles move, 3. Chromosomes condense/visible, 4. Spindles form
Metaphase 1. Centrioles opp sides of nucleus, 2. Chromosomes line up at the equator
Anaphase 1. Spindle fibers shorten. 2. Centromere breaks 3. each Chromatid moves to opposite sides of cell
Telaphase 1. New nuclear envelop surrounds DNA. 2. Cytokinesis begins
Cytokinesis phase of the cc that the cytoplasm and the organelles are divided
What causes a cell to divide? 1. signals from organs and cells 2. Environmental signals.
What are check points? They are like quality control agents that check and make sure the cell has the right material and being built correctly.
G1 checkpoint Makes sure conditions are favorable for cell to prepare to divide
G2 checkpoint checks DNA and fixes mistakes
Mitosis checkpoint makes sure the DNA is separated properly
Cancer disease caused by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
Tumor growth that arises from normal cells but grows uncontrollably and lack proper function
What are the two types of tumors? benign and malignant
Benign tumor a tumor that does not spread
Metastasis the process of a cancer spreading
Malignant tumor type of tumor that is likely to spread to other parts of the body
What are the three treatments for cancer? surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Regulatory proteins proteins that speed up or slow down the cell cycle
Cyclins these are proteins that regulate the cell cycle
Internal Regulators regulatory proteins that respond to events inside the cell
External Regulators regulators that respond to activity outside the cell
Growth Factors these are external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth of embryos and the wound healing
Asexual reproduction reproduction by binary fission or mitosis that creates new identical cells from a single cell
Sexual reproduction the making of new organisms that are genetically different than either parent
Cell surface area to volume ratio a ratio that shows that the volume of the cell increases faster than the surface area causing there to be a difficulty moving materials into and out of the cell.
Metastasis when cancer cells spread from one location of the body to another
Cell differentiation the process by which cells become specialized
Stem Cells are cells that haven’t become specialized
Adult Stem Cells stem cells found in adults that are multipotent(can be come other types of cell in same tissue)
Embryonic stem cells are stem cells found in the embryo of organisms that can become any type of cell in the body.
Possible stem cell benefits being able to repair all the tissues of the body
Ethical Issues human embryonic stem cell research is controversial because the arguments for and against it both involve the ethical issues of life and death
iPS cells induced pluripotent stem cells are adult stem cells that are made to be able to become more types of specialized cells.
Created by: mrwillsshs



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