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Ch 32 continued

Potter and Perry Ch 32 Urinary elimination

What is the normal clarity of urine? Normal urine is clear upon voiding. It gets cloudy after standing in a container for several minutes.
Why does the urine of patients with renal disease have a cloudy appearance? because it has protien in it
What else can cause a cloudy appearance? Bacteria can make urine look thick and cloudy
What does normal urine smell like? Normal urine has a mild ammonia odor
Urine collected for the lab should be labled with what information? patient's name, date, time of collection
In what time frame should urine samples get to the lab and why? Urine samples need to get to the lab within 1hour of collection or be refrigerated. If left to stand too long bacteria will begin to grow.
What is a normal value for urine pH? 4.6 to 8
What happens to urine pH as it stands and why? It becomes more alkaline due to bacterial growth.
What is a normal value for protein in the urine? up to 8mg/100ml
Is it normal to have protein in the urine? Why would we have a normal value for protein? No it is not normally in the urine but may show up temporarily after strenuous exercise, exposure to cold, or psychological stress.
Why do people with renal disease have protein in their urine? Because the damage to the glomerular membrane allows protein to pass. Healthy glomerular membranes do not allow passage of protein.
What is the normal value for glucose in urine? Glucose is not usually in the urine of a healthy person unless they have ingested high concentrations of glucose.
Why do diabetic patients have glucose in their urine? Because of the inability of the kidney tubules to reabsorb high serum glucose concentrations (over 180mg/100ml).
What is the normal value for ketones in urine? Ketones are not usually in urine
Give some examples of reasons people would have ketones in their urine. The end product of the catabolism of fatty acids is ketones. Diabetics with poor control will have ketones. Dehydration, starvation, and excessive aspirin ingestion can cause there to be ketones in the urine.
Give some possible reasons for hematuria. Damage to glomerulus or tubules, trauma or disease of the lower urinary tract
What is the normal value range for specific gravity? 1.01 to 1.03
What could cause elevated specific gravity (concentrated urine)? dehydration, reduced renal blood flow, increased ADH secretion
What could cause reduced specific gravity (dilute urine)? Overhydration and inadequate ADH secretion