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Week 2 LifeSpan GPsy

Physical, cognitive, social development

Apgar score To help assess a newborns health, used to measure five vital signs: breathing, heart rate, muscle tone, presence of reflexes, and skin tone.
reflexes unlearned responses triggered by specific stimulation
alert inactivity the state in which a baby is calm, with eyes open and attentive, and seems to be deliberately inspecting its environment.
NBAS or Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale is used with newborns to 24 month olds to provide a detailed portrait of the baby's behavior. Used to evaluate the functioning of four systems: Automomic, Motor, State, and Social.
waking activity the state in which a baby's eyes are open but seem unfocused while the arms or legs move in bursts of uncoordinated motion
crying the state in which a baby cries vigorously, usually accompanied by agitated by uncoordinated movement
sleeping the state in which a baby alternates from being still and breathing regularly to moving gently and breathing irregularly, with the eyes closed throughout.
basic cry a cry that starts softly, gradually becomes more intense, and is often heard when babies are hungry or tired.
mad cry a more intense version of a basic cry
pain cry a cry that begins with a sudden long burst, followed by a long pause and gasping
irregular or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep sleep in which an infant's eyes dart rapidly beneath the eyelids while the body is quite active
regular (non rem) sleep sleep in which heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are steady
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) when a healthy baby dies suddenly for no apparent reason
temperament a consistent style or pattern of behavior
Some reflexes help infants get necessary nutrients, other reflexes protect infants from danger, and still other reflexes ____. serve as the basis for later motor behaviors
The ____ is based on five vital functions and indicates a newborn's physical health. APGAR score
A baby lying calmly with its eyes open and focused is in a state of alert inactivity
Newborns spend more time asleep than awake, and about half this sleep time is spent in. ____, a time thought to foster growth in the central nervous system. REM sleep
The campaign to reduce SIDS emphasizes that infants should sleep on their backs
Research on sources of temperament indicate that ____ both play a role heredity and environment
malnourished being small for age because of inadequate nutrition
neuron a basic cellular unit of the brain and nervous system that specializes in receiving and transmitting information
cell body the center of the neuron that contains biological machinery to keep the cell alive.
dendrite the end of the neuron that receives information from other neurons
axon a tubelike structure that emerges from the cell body and transmits information to other neurons
terminal buttons small knobs at the end of the axon that release neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters chemicals released by terminal buttons that allow neurons to communicate with one another
cerebral cortex the wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human
hemispheres right and left halves of the cortex
corpus callosum a think bundle of neurons that connects the brains two hemispheres
frontal cortex the brain region that regulates personality and goal-directed behavior
neural plate a flat group of cells present in prenatal development that become the brain and spinal cord
myelin a fatty sheath that wraps around neurons and enables them to transmit information more rapidly
synaptic pruning a gradual reduction in the number of synapses, beginnings in infancy and continuing until early adolescence
experience-expectant growth the process by which the wiring of the brain is organized by experiences that are common to most humans
motor skills coordinated movements of the muscles and limbs
locomotion the ability to move around in the world
fine motor skills body movements associated with grasping, holding, and manipulating objects
dynamic systems theory the theory that views motor development as involving many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet specific needs
differentiation distinguishing and mastering individual motions
integration linking individual motions into a coherent, coordinated whole
perception processes by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerve impulses that are the result of physical stimulation
visual cliff a glass covered platform that appears to have a hollow side and a deep side and is used to study infants depth perception
visual expansion a kinetic cue to depth perception that is based on an object filling an ever greater proportion of the retina as it moves closer
motion parallax a kinetic cue to depth perception based on nearby objects moving across our visual field faster than distant moving objects
retinal disparity a way of inferring depth based on differences in the retinal images in the left and right eyes
pictorial cues cues to depth perception that are used to convey depth in drawing s and paintings
linear perspective a cue to depth perception based on parallel lines coming together at a single point in the distance
texture gradiant a perceptual cue to depth based on the texture of objects changing from coarse and distinct for nearby objects to finer and less distinct for distant objects.
intersensory redundancy being attuned to information presented simultaneously to different sensory modes
theory of mind ideas about connections between thought, beliefs, intentions, and behavior that create an intuitive understanding of the link between mind and behavior
schemes according to Piaget, mental structures that organize informations and regulate behavior (psychological structures that organize experience
assimilation according to Piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what is already known
accommodation according to Piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge
equilibration according to Piaget, a process by which when disequilibrium occurs, children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium.
sensorimotor infancy - birth to 2 years
Preoperational more complex thinking, egocentric (preschool and early elementary school years- 2 to 6)
egocentrism the child believes that all people see the world as they see it
centration the child focuses on one aspect of the problem or situations but ignores other relevant aspects
appearance as reality the child assumes that an object really is what it appears to be
concrete operational middle and late elementary school years _ 7 to 11
formal operational adolescence and adulthood - 11 years and up
core knowledge hypothesis the theory that infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world, which is elaborated based on experiences
mental hardware mental and neural structures that are built in and that allow the mind to operate
mental software mental programs that are the basis for performing particular tasks
attention processes that determine which information is processed further by an individual
orienting response an individual views a strong or unfamiliar stimulus, and changes in heart rate and brain wave activity occur
habituation becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly.
classical conditioning a form of learning that involves pairing a neutral stimulus and a response originally produced by another stimulus
operant conditioning a form of learning in which reward and punishment determine the likelihood that a behavior will recur
imitation babies will imitate the actions of other people
autobiographical memory memories of the significant events and experiences of someone's own life
one to one principle a counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted
stable order principle a counting principle that states that number names must always be counted in the same order
cardinality principle a counting principle in which the last number name denotes the number of objects being counted
zone of proximal development the difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone
scaffolding a style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learners needs
private speech a childs comments that are not intended for others but are designed instead to help regulate the childs behavior
phonemes unique sounds used to create words, making them the basic building blocks of language
infant directed speech speech that adults use with infants that is slow, has exaggerated changes in pitch and volume, and is thought to aid language acquisition
cooing early vowel like sounds that babies produce
babbling speech like sounds that consist of vowel consonant combinations and are common at about 6 months
fast mapping a child connections between words and referents that are made so quickly that he or she cannot consider all possible meanings of the word.
underextension when children define words more narrowly than adults do
overextension when children define words more broadly than adults do
referential style a language learning style of children whose vocabularies are dominated by names of objects, people, or actions
expressive style a language learning style of children whose vocabularies include many social phrases that are used like one word.
telegraphic speech speech used by young children that contains only words necessary to convey a message
grammatical morphemes words or endings of words that make a sentence grammatical
overregularizations grammatical usage that results from applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule
hope according to Erikson, an openness to new experience tempered by wariness that occurs when trust and mistrust are in balance
will according to Erikson, a young child's understanding that he or she can act on the world intentionally, which occurs when autonomy, shame, and doubt are in balance
purpose according to Erikson, a balance between individual initiative and willingness to cooperate with others
attachment enduring socioemotional relationships between infants and their caregivers
secure attachment a relationship in which infants have come to trust and depend on their mothers
avoidant attachment a relationship in which infants turn from their mothers when they are reunited following a brief separation.
resistant attachment a relationship in which, after a brief separation, infants want to be held but are difficult to console
disorganized (disoriented) attachment a relationship in which infants don't seem to understand what's happening when they are separated and later reunited with their mothers
internal working model an infants understanding of how responsive and dependable the mother is, which is thought to influence close relationships throughout the childs life
basic emotions emotions experienced by humankind and that consist of three elements; a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and an overt behavior
social smiles smiles that infants produce when they see a human face
stanger wariness the first distinct signs of fear that emerge around 6 months of age when infants become wary in the presence of unfamiliar adults
social referencing behavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at an adult for cues to help them interpret the situation
parallel play when children play alone but are aware of and interested in what another child is doing
simple social play play that begins at about 15-18 months and continues into toddlerhood, when talking and smiling at each other also occur
cooperative play play that is organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role, and that begins at about 2 years of age
enabling actions individuals actions and remarks that tend to support others and sustain the interaction
constristing actions interactions in which one partner tries to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other
prosocial behavior any behavior that benefits another person
altruism prosocial behavior such as helping and sharing in which the individual does not benefit directly from the behavior
empathy experiencing another persons feelings
social role a set of cultural guidelines about how one should behave, especially with other people
gender stereotypes beliefs and images about males and females that are not necessarily true
relational aggression aggression used to hurt others by undermining their social relationships
gender identity a sense of oneself as male or female
gender-schema theory a theory that states that children want to learn more about an activity only after first deciding whether it is masculine or feminine
Created by: mcr71852
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