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neuro exam 1- hoodin


the opposite of anterior is posterior
cephalic is toward the brain, toward the tail is caudal
mideal means toward the middle, what means toward the side lateral
a frontal section of the brain is divided front to back
a sagital section divides the brain left to right
a telephone system that allows the brain to communicate with all parts of the body the nervous system
the part of the nervous system that has motor information central nervous system
the information going out/efferent information motor information
the information from the environment that comes into the body sensory information into the periperal nervous system
cns is composed of these 4 parts cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord
the function of the cerebrum in the cns pair hemispheres- takes care of higher cognitive function- planning, language, problem solving
the function of the cerebellum in the cns back of the brain- one of the 3 motor control centers
the function of the brain stem in the cns 1) transmissive function- caried info in and out of cns, pns 2) mediates complex reflexes- vegatative (breathing, swallowing, etc)...also bridges the cerebrum and cerebellum
the function of the spinal cord in the cns carries sensory (ascending) info up and motor (descending) info down- not much circuitry-involves simple reflexes
peripheral nervous system spinal and cranial nerves
spinal nerves in the PNS mixed nerves- 31 paired- exit the lateral edges of the spinal cord- sensory and motor branch- provide innervation (communication) with the area below the neck
cranial nerves in the PNS provide innervation in the neck and head- 12 paired nerves- sensory and motor branch-
autonomic nervous system (ANS) made up of the branching of spinal and cranial nerves- mostly in the PNS- role: provided automatic functions-internal states we dont think about
sympathetic branch - autonomic nervous system fight or flight- in states of arousal- pumps blood to major muscles
para-sympathetic branch- autonomic nervous system in states of relaxation- pumps blood away from muscles and to the stomach for digestion
another way to indicate away from the body or close to the body is distal and proximal
cross section of the spinal cord is called a transverse section
homeostasis maintains and keeps the body stable
glial cells supports cells- if you have a brain tumor- it grows in these type of cells
glial cells in the cns astrocytes- microglia - oligodendroliglia - ependymal cells (charoid plexus)
role of astrocyte glial cell - cns 1)supportive (phagocytosis) 2)provides a blood/brain barrier 3) isolates the synapse-providing a barrier where the neurons communicate
role of the microglia glial cell- cns housekeeping - phagocytosis
role of the oligodendroglia glial cell-cns provides an myelin sheath around the axon of the neuron in the cns- isolates and insulates - sheath is white/lipid/fatty 30x1 ration nueron cell to sheath cell
role of the ependymal cells (chariod plexus) glial cells in the cns manufacture cerebral spinal fluid - lines the ventricles of the opening (cavities of the brain)
glia cells in the pns satelitte cells- schwann cells - fibroblasts
role of satellite glial cells - pns provides physical support to the neurons
role of schwann glial cells - pns provides myeling sheath to the neurons in the pns- there is a 1x1 ratio of myelin cells to neuron cells
role of fibroblast glial cells - pns sheath that surrounds the nerves- holds the bundle together and provided unity of purpose
neuron nerve cells in the cns and pns- basic functioning part of our nervous system- appx 50 billion in our body- only cell that has the "property of excitability" if stimulated sufficiently, it can shoot an electric charge down its length
soma cell body
dentrites extrusions from the cell body which carry electic charges to the cell body
axon carries electric charges away from the cell body
cell membrane seperates the extra-cellular fluid for the intra-cellular fluid
arborization of the axon branching out of the axon
termial button the swollen area on the axon - pre-synaptic membrane
receptor site the swollen area on the dentrite - post-synaptic membrane
synaptic gap the gap between the receptor site and the terminal button
neurotransmitter general term for chemical- located in a vesicle inside the terminal button- when the term button gets excited- the vesicle secretes the chemical into the synaptic gap & attaches itself to the receptor site and has an effect on it
effect the neurotransmitter has on receptor site when the chemical attaches to the receptor site- it creates an electrical charge and changes the charge and changes its permeability
change of permeability substances that once could not pass thru now may be able to
physical chemistry of a synapse (pt 1) *creates and electrical charge *changes the permeability * if the receptor site is for a specific chemical, it like a key to that site
physical chemistry of synapse (pt 2) some chemicals wont open the door (wrong key)- neurotransmitters like receptor sites, so it goes there - chemicals influence the receptor site
examples of neurotransmitters seratonin, dopamine
3 forces that influence a synapse 1) sodium (+) out potassium (+)in pump 2) potassium(+) leak out 3) protien amin (-)
resting potential equilibrium of a neuron- (-)70Mv- when there is balance on the inside and outside of a neuron- at rest there is more sodium outside and potassium inside
action potential occurs when a neuron sends info down its axon away from the cell body (-)50Mv
ipsp- hyperpolarization inhibitory post-synaptic potential- decreases the chance neuron will fire due to flow of negative into the cell and positive out
epsp- hypopolarization- excitatory post synaptic potential- increases the change the neuron will fire due to the flow of positive into the cell
graded potential over time and over space, the magnitude of the charge decrease-farther has a smaller influence than ones that are close
axon hillock the area on the neuron where the cell body connects to the axon- its the location where the threshold of firing can or wont occur due to influence of EPSP or IPSE
absolute refractory period after firing- neuron must have this time to rest
relative refractory period only a super force could excite the neuron to fire
threshold of firing -50 Mv when sufficient stimulation is recieved at the axon hillocks-it sends a wave of permeable change down its length- fires or doesnt- on or off
all or none law threshold and magnitude are fixed- if a neuron reaches threshold, it always fires, and always with the same magnitude
summation if two synapses occur close to another you get a bonus point
temporal summation synapses close in time
spatial summation synapses close in proximity
axodendritic synapse axon sends dendrite receives
axosomatic synapse axon sends soma receives
axo-axonal syanpse axon send axon receives (receiever is prevented from firing due to IPSP
myoneural junction in cranial and spinal nerves- motor neurons that go to the muscle fibers when synapse happens- muscle fibers contract because of synapse neuron and muscle fiber
nodes of ranvier breaks in the myelin sheath - charge moves down the axon skipping from node to node
saltatory conduction charge moves faster in myelinated neurons
axons with bigger diameter and more myelin travel fastest
non-myelinated neurons and small diameters travel slower
motor system activities required skilled movement are characterized by descending neurons of great diameter and heavy myelination
when synapse occurs- the chemical influence is only available to the receptor site for a short time due to deactivation and re-uptake
deactivation the receptor site secretes an enzyme which goes out an kills the neurotransmitter (ex. chemical acylocholine is killed by enzyme acylcholinstrasse)
re-uptake the terminal button draws the chemical back into it
neuro-leptic medication impede-enzyme medication that is given that impedes the neurotransmitter
neuro-leptic medication inhibit-enzyme medication that is given that goesafter theneurotransmitter and inhibits it- ex. ssri selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor- paxil, zoloft, prozak)
mimic transmitter- medication manufacture the "key" that opens the door- ex. methadone for heroine
provide chemical precurser medication ex brain cannot produce dopamine- so a chemical (pill) levadope is given and it enables the brain to produce dopamine - dopamine cannot cross blood barrier- chemical levadope can
spinal nerves of the PNS 31 pairs of spinal nerves- grey matter- nerves exit along the lateral edges of of the spinal cord- dorsal spinal cord- sensory root comes out; ventral spinal cord- motor root comes out of
dorsal root ganglion massive nerve cell bodies in the PNS- sensory part- uni-polar neurons
spinal nerve cycle receptor (stimulation from environment)send a msg up the spinal sensory nerve-to sensory root ganglion- goes via dendrite in spinal grey and synapses on the axon of the motor root- send info to the muscle
cranial nerves in the CNS 12 pair
motor unit the motor neuron PLUS the muscle fibers that it innervates
lower motor neuron its the most peripheral - as low as it gets- connects the spinal cord and brain stem to muscle fibers- brings the nerve impulses from the upper motor neuron out to the muscles- lower motor neurons axon terminates on the muscle
final common pathway refers to the lower motor neurons- its the only route to the muscle fibers- it its severed, loses contact with the brain
denirvation if the connected between the muscle fibers and lower motor neuron gets damages or severed-and they no longer receive energy
atrophy loss of muscle mass due to death of the muscle/connection
speech musculature ratio (muscle fiber/neuron) 200 x 1 - its and intermediate range with respect to skilled movement- (eye ball movement-1x1...back movement 200 x1-not much skilled)
types of muscles smooth, stiated, cardiac
cardiac muscle muscle of the heart- keeps it pumping
smooth muscles not a voluntary muscle- lines the brain- carries food down the esophagus
striated muscle most important in speech- voluntary control- skilled movement
speech musculature oropharyngealaryngeal (peri-oral) overlaps with respect to fuction- use the same muscles in speaking, swallowing, chewing, coughing, etc
reflex stereotyped motor response directly tied to a stimulus- need not involve higher senses- could just be a simple reflex (spinal) or could be complex (brain)
3 types of reflexes 1)mono-synaptic extensor reflex 2) principle of reciprocation innervations 3) muscle tone reflex
basal ganglia movements and reflexes are organized here- facilitates needed portions of movement and inhibits unwanted movement
ex of damage to the basal ganglia parkinson's disease- unwanted movement present
mono-synaptic extensor reflex simplest conceivable reflex- done at spinal level
mono-synaptic extensor reflex circuit get environmental stimulation - go to sensory cell body- synapse with lower motor neuron- a limb moves
principle of reciprocation innervations involves contracting of one and relaxing of another muscle- antagonist is the prime mover- agonist (opposite) relaxed
principle of reciprocation innervations- circuit environmental stimulation- sensory cell body syapses with motor at the same time internuncial neuron are are communicating between cns and pns
internuncial neurons function neurons-connecting neuron- usually a pathway between 2 neurons- motor and sensory- the more movement-more internuncial neurons involved-they can go across or up/down/side -cerebellum (motor control center)is made up mostly of internuncial neurons
preferred pathways like muscle memory- developed movements that youve done a lot- internuncials remember these movements- ex. athletes able to move a specific way
muscle tone its residual tightness gives muscles shape- as long as your alive and neurologically ok, you will always have muscle tone- you can voluntarily change-you set your muscle tone based on the job at hand
muscle tone reflex the most complex level of reflex- skilled movement gets superimposed on muscle tone
circuitry for muscle tone reflex pt 1 body says "more muscle needed"*msg from cortex descends down to the upper motor neuron*synapses with gamma motor neuron*fires*synapses with intrafusal muscle fibers*increases tension/decreases diameter*stimulates annulospiral sensory neuron*fires*
circuitry for muscle tone reflex pt 2 synapses with alpha motor neuron*fires*syapses with extrafusal muscle fiber*extrafuasal contracts*diameter of intrafusal is reduced and the circuitry stops
muscle-flex (paletal reflex) when doc hits knee he hits the extrafusal fiber causing it to stretch and start the circuitry
extrafusal muscle fiber skeletal muscles outside the bag muscles
intrafusal muscle fibers fibers in the bag
somatosensory system all of the feelings/sensations from our body-touch, pain, tickle,itch, everything has sensory receptors- every sense had a receptor-receptors take the environmental influence and transform into an electric charge
pain and touch receptor free nerve endings- among the cells of your skin-dendritic fibers are amongst your skin cells
fine touch receptor you use these receptors to identify objects by touching them-nerve ending encapsulated
diffuse receptors you use these receptors if your blind or in the dark to feel you way around...expanded nerve endings
proprioception (body awareness) receptors most complex- uses 3 sources collectively working together- a) muscle spindles:stretch b)tendons-golgi tendon organs sensitive to :tension c)joints-sensitive to :pressure
alpha motor neuron innervates with the extrafusal muscle fiber of the skeletal muscle- responsible for contraction
gamma motor neuron innervates with intrafusal muscle fibers (in the bag)
annulospiral sensory neuron gets innervated from the intrafusal muscle fiber
Created by: guillbrown



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