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Biology Chapter 10

Cellular Reproduction

Name the stages of mitosis. Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
What is anaphase? A stage of mitosis during which sister chromatids are separated from each other
What is binary fission? A prokaryotic cell division process.
What is the cell cycle? Ordered series of events involving cell growth and cell division that makes two new daughter cells.
What is the cell plate? Only occurs in plant cells in cytokinesis by golgi vesicles, forming a temporary structure and fusing at the metaphase plate.
What is a cell-cycle checkpoint? A mechanism that determines if a eukaryotic cell is able to advance through the cell cycle.
What is the centriole? A rod-like structure made of microtubules at the center of each animal cell centrosome.
What is a centromere? The region where sister chromatids are connected.
What is the cleavage furrow? This is the constriction of the cell membrane by an actin ring during cytokinesis that divides the cell.
What is condensin? A protein that helps sister chromatids coil during prophase.
What is cyclin? A group of proteins that act in conjunction with with cyclin-depndent kinases to help regulate the cell cycle
What is a cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)? A different group of proteins that helps to regulate the cell cycle when bound to cyclin; it functions to phosphorylate other proteins that are either activated or inactivated by phosphorylation.
What is cytokinesis? The division of the cytoplasm following mitosis that makes two new cells.
Define diploid. A cell, nucleus, or organism that contains two sets of chromosomes. (2n)
What is FtsZ? Tublin-like protein component of prokaryotic cytoskeleton that is important in prokaryotic cytokinesis. Stands for Filamenting Temperature-Sensitive mutant Z.
What happens in the G0 phase of the cell cycle. This is the dormant portion of the cell's life. It is not preparing for cell division.
What happens in the G1 phase? First phase of interphase centered on cellular growth during mitosis.
What happens in the S phase? This is the second step and it synthesizes or copies the DNA
What happens in the G2 phase? The third phase of interphase during which the cell undergoes final preparations for mitosis (growing more).
What is a gamete? A haploid reproductive cell or sex cell (sperm, pollen grain, or egg).
What is a gene? A physical and functional unit of heredity, a sequence of DNA that codes for a protein
What is a genome? The total genetic information of a cell or organism.
Describe haploid. Cell, nucleus, or organism that contains one set of chromosomes. (n)
What is a histone? A basic protein found in the chromatin of all eukaryotic cells; associates with DNA to form nucleosomes.
What is a homologous chromosome? Chromosomes of the same morphology with genes in the same location. Diploid chromosomes have pairs of homologous chromosomes.
What is interphase? The period of the cell cycle leading up to mitosis; includes G1, S, and G2 phases
What is karyokinesis? Mitotic cellular division (aka mitosis)
What is a kinetochore? A protein structure associated with the centromere of each sister chromatid that attracts and binds spindle microtubules during prometaphase.
What is the locus? The position of a gene on a chromosome.
What is metaphase? The stage of mitosis when the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate (or middle of the cell).
What is the metaphase plate? The equatorial plane midway between the two poles of a cell where the chromosomes align during metaphase.
Define mitosis. Period of the cell cycle when the duplicated chromosomes are separated into identical nuclei
What is the mitotic spindle? The apparatus made of microtubules that governs the movement of chromosomes during mitosis.
What is a nucleosome? A subunit of chromatin made of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins.
What is an oncogene? The mutated version of a normal gene involved in the positive regulation of the cell.
What is the origin? The region of the prokaryotic chromosome where replication begins
What is p21? A cell-cycle regulatory protein that inhibits the cell cycle; its levels are controlled by p53.
What is p53? Another regulatory protein that regulates cell growth and monitors DNA damage; it halts the advancement of the cell cycle in case of DNA damage and may induce apoptosis.
What is prometaphase? A stage of mitosis during which the nuclear membrane breaks down and mitotic spindle fibers attach to kinetochores.
What is prophase? The stage of mitosis when the chromosomes condense and the mitotic spindle begins to form.
What is a proto-oncogene? A normal gene that, when mutated, becomes an oncogene
What is a retinoblastoma protein (Rb)? Regulatory molecule that exhibits negative effects on the cell cycle by interacting with a transcription factor (E2F)
What is a septum? A structure formed in bacterial cell as a precursor to the separation of the cell into two daughter cells.
what is telophase? The stage of mitosis when the chromosomes arrive at opposite poles, decondense, and are surrounded by a new nuclear envelope.
What is the tumor suppressor gene? The segment of DNA that codes for regulator proteins that prevent the cell from undergoing uncontrolled division.
The diploid cell has ______ the number of chromosomes as a haploid cell. twice
An organism's traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited______. genes
Identical copies of chromatin held together by cohesin at the centromere are called _______. sister chromatids
Which of the following events does not occur during some stages of interphase? 1) DNA duplication 2) Organelle duplication 3) increase in cell size 4) separation of sister chromatids Organelle duplication
Attachment of the mitotic spindle fibers to the kinetochores is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis? Prometaphase
Separation of the sister chromatids is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis? Telophase
The fusing of golgi vesicles at the metaphase plate of dividing plant cells forms what structure? Cell plate
At which of the cell-cycle checkpoints do external forces have the greatest influence? G1 checkpoint
If the M checkpoint is not cleared, what stage of mitosis will be blocked? Anaphase
Many of the negative regulator proteins of the cell cycle were discovered in what type of cells? In cancer cells
______are changes to the order of nucleotides in a segment of DNA that codes for a protein. Gene mutations
A mutated gene that codes for an altered version of Cdk that is active in the absence of a cycle in an ________ Oncogene
Which eukaryotic cell-cycle event is missing in binary fission? Karyokinesis (mitosis)
Created by: tali_Alley
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