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Ch. 8 Photosynthesis

TC3 Biol 104

Chloroplast the cellular organelle in charge of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis the process that transforms light energy into chemical energy
Autotrophs organisms that produce their own organic molecules from carbon dioxide and other inorganic raw materials from the environment
Heterotrophs cannot make their own food, therefore they have to eat other animals to get nutrients
Mesophyll the the interior tissue of a leaf with a high concentration of chloroplasts
Stomata microscopic pores in a leaf to allow movement of gas in and out
Stroma the fluid inside a chloroplast
Thylakoids single inner membranes structures that contain chlorophyll
Grana stack of thylakoids
Light reactions the first of two stages of photosynthesis; uses energy from the Sun to split water and make energy to drive the next stage.
Calvin cycle (dark reactions) the second of two stages of photosynthesis where sugars are synthesized
NADPH an energy electron carrier needed for the second stage of photosynthesis, besides ATP
Photophosphorylation using chemiosmosis (electron transport chain) to make ATP during the first stage of photosynthesis.
Carbon fixation the first stage of the Calvin cycle where a Carbon from Carbon dioxide from the air is input to the cycle.
Spectrophotometer a machine that measures the ability of pigments to absorb various wavelengths of light
Absorption spectrum a graph plotting a pigment's light absorption versus wavelength
Photosystem a reaction center that can harvest light energy, excite electrons, and transfer that energy into electron carriers
Linear electron flow (noncyclic photophosphorylation) the sequence of electrons moving from photosystem 2 to photosystem 1 during the light reactions of photosynthesis, making both ATP and NADPH.
Cyclic electron flow (cyclic photophosphorylation) the electrons from photosystem 1 cycle backward to re-enter it, and make more ATP.
G3P sugar a three carbon sugar produced after three turns of the Calvin cycle
Rubisco the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle. The most important enzyme on Earth!
RuBP (Ribulose bisphosphate) the starting material of the Calvin cycle, that carbon dioxide gets added to.
Calvin cycle phase 1 carbon fixation
Calvin cycle phase 2 reduction and creation of G3P sugar
Calvin cycle phase 3 regeneration of the carbon dioxide acceptor
C3 plants the majority of plants fall into this category, and make sugar via the Calvin cycle output of G3P sugar
Photorespiration a process that happens in plants on hot days when the stomata close. Oxygen is used and CO2 is produced. It’s like anti-photosynthesis.
C4 plants this category of plants have a modified pathway for sugar synthesis on hot dry days when the stomata are closed; includes utilizing bundle sheath cells to maintain CO2 concentrations
CAM plants this category of plants include desert plants (succulents) that only open their stomata at night when it’s cool. Carbon dioxide, and make it into various organic acids. That way in the daytime when the stomata are closed, there is a good supply of CO2 from those acids.
Created by: PRO Teacher etucci
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