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digest ch 23

What are the 7 main parts of GI tract? Mouth, pharynx esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, and anal canal
What are the accessory digestive organs? teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, pancreas, liver
what are the 6 basic activities of the GI tract? Ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption/secretion, defecation
How is food moved through the GI tract? Perostalsis
What is similar about the GI tract from the esophagus to the anal canal? Has the same basic arrangements of tissues
What are the four basic layers of the tract from the inside out? Mucosa, submucosa, Muscularis, serosa
What are the three layers of the mucosa? epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
What is the function of the epithelium in the mucosa? protection, secretion & absorption
What is the function of the lamina propia layer in the mucosa? (connective tissue) blood and lymphatic vessels for nutrient absorption
What is the function of the muscularis mucosa of the mucosa? (smooth muscle fibers) create small folds to increase surface area
What is the purpose of the submucosa? (connective tissue) sits between two layers of muscle-binds the mucosa to the muscularis
What contains the submucosal nerve plexus? submucosa
What does the submucosal nerve plexus serve? muscularis mucosa and controls secretions by the GI tract
Which part of the digestive system requires some voluntary control? Mouth, pharynx and upper esophagus and external anal sphincter-part skeletal muscle for voluntary swallowing and defecation
What kind of muscle does the GI tract have? 2 layers of smooth muscle:circular & longitudinal
What is the exception regarding the muscle in the GI tract? The stomach has 3 layers of muscle where as the rest has 2 layers
What is the myenteric plexus? nervous supply to muscle
Similar to the heart and lungs, what might we call the tissue that covers the surface of GI tract organs? Serosa
What kind of tissue does the serosa include? connective and epithelium
What are the layers of the peritoneum and where do you find them? visceral & parietal
what is the definition of retroperitoneal cavity? Is the anatomical space in the abdominal cavity behind the peritoneum.
What are some examples of organs that lie on the posterior wall and are only covered on their anterior surfaces? most of pancreas, and parts of the large intestines
What is a retroperitoneal organ? An organ that lies posterior to the peritoneum
What is a mesentery? a double layer of peritoneum-a sheet of two serous membranes fused back to back
Where is the greater omentum located? hangs over the transverse colon like a vascular apron
What is a function of the omentum? protection, insulation
what does the mesentary do? binds small intestines to the abdominal wall
what does the mesocolon do? binds large intestines to posterior body wall
what does the lesser omentum do? binds lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver
what is a complication of cirrhosis of the liver? encephalopathy, ascites(exess of fluid in the space between membranes lining the abdomen and abdominal organs)
which part of the digestive tract have 3 layers of muscle in their muscularis tissue layer? stomach
Which layer of the digestive tract is made up of mostly connective tissue and sits between two layers of muscle? submucosa
How long is the esophogus? 10in long
what is the spincter called that is the entrance of the esophagus? esophageal sphincter
what event coincides with the relaxation of the esophageal sphincter? swallowing
Where does the esophagus enter the peritoneal cavity? at the esophageal hiatus
what are the three muscle layers of the stomach? outer longitudinal, middle circular, inner oblique layer
What are the names of the parts of the stomach? cardia, fundus, body, pyloric
what is the pylorus? gatekeeper of the stomach
How does the stomach assist with digestion? Mechanically:peristaltic mixing, churning and mixing Chemically: adds chemicals to breakdown protein
How much absorption happens in the stomach? very little
What is the first section of the small intestines/ duodenum
How do we describe the location of the duodenum? retroperitoneal cavity
What does the duodenum recieve from the stomach? chyme
What does the duodenum recieve through the hepatopancreatic ampulla? Bile, pancreatic juice, enzymes
Where does absorption take place? in the jejunum of the small intestine
How long is the jejunum? 8ft
How long is the ileum? 12ft
What is the longest and last section of the small intestines/ ileum
where is the ileocecal valve located? point at which the ileum enters the cecum
How do the contents of the digestive system change once in the large intestines and why? Chyme converted to semisolid stool or feces, due to water absorption
What is the cecum? expanded pouch at the base of the ascending colon
What accessory organ is attached to the cecum? the vermiform APPENDIX
What are the 4 parts to the colon? ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid
The walls of the colon are formed by a series of what that allow for distention? haustra
Digestion in the G.I. tract depends on 3 accessory structures? pancreas, liver and gallbladder
Where does the majority of absorption of nutrients occur? small intestines
Where is the pancreas located? in the retroperitoneal cavity-posterior and inferior to the stomach
where does the pancreas empty? the duodenum
what are the two ducts of the pancreas that empty into the duodenum? smaller accessory duct & the larger pancreatic duct(heptopancreatic ampulla)
What does the pancreas secrete? digestive enzymes and hormones(insulin)
What are the 4 lobes of the liver? right & left lobe-separated by falciform ligament, quadrate lobe and caudate lobe
what separates the right and left lobe of the liver? falciform ligament
which two vessels bring blood to the liver? hepatic artery and portal vein
What type of blood does the hepatic artery carry? oxygenated blood to the liver
what type of blood does the portal vein carry? nutrient rich blood to the liver
Portal vein to where? to liver
Splenic from where? spleen
Veins carrying products of digestion do not directly enter the systemic circulation instead they are delivered to where? to the liver via the portal vien
What does the liver do? metabolizes nutrients from GI, detoxification, bile production & secretiion, storage of glycagon + some vitamins and minerals
Where is the bile produced and excreted? the liver
What does the gallbladder do? stores and concentrates bile up to 10 fold until it is needed in the small intestines
Smooth muscle in wall of gallbladder contract causing what to happen? bile forced into cystic duct, bile duct and than small intestine
what is bile used for? digestion of fat
where does the gallbladder force bile into? the cystic duct, the bile duct, small intestines
intrinsic muscles do what to the tongue? change the shape
extrinsic muscles do what to the tongue alter the tongues position
what is the lingual frenulum? attachment to the floor of the mouth=tongue tied
which taste buds are the only ones you can see? circumvallate papilla
which salivary gland does the mumps effect? parotid
what is saliva secreted from? serous and mucous cells
what is the main component of saliva? water
how much water makes up saliva? 97-99.5%
what electrolytes are found in saliva? na+, k+, cl-,po4 2-, hco3-(bicarbonate)
what is the enzyme that starts digesting starch in the mouth? salivary amylase
what is the enzyme that starts digesting fat in the mouth? lingual lypase
what wraps the bolus so it can slide down the throat>? mucin
what metabolic wastes are found in the saliva? urea, and uric acid
what is found in saliva that helps protect against microorganisms? lysozyme, IgA, defensins and a cyanide compound
What does peridontitis effect? the tooth ligament(periodontal)
what is the gingiva? gum
how many primary teeth do we have? 20
how many permanent teeth> 32
why doesnt enamel grow back? because its avascular
what makes up the majority of the tooth? dentin
where are the blood vessels and nerves found in the tooth? in the pulp
what does the periodontal ligament adhere to? the cementum
what does occlusion mean? How teeth fit together
where does the start of digestion occur? in the mouth with mastification(chewing)
what begins the breakdown of disaccharides(sugars) in the mouth? salivary amylase
what do liver lobules do? filter and process nutrient-rich blood
What is at each corner of the liver lobule? bile duct(recieves bile from bile canaliculi)portal arteriole(branch of the hepatic artery)Hepatic venule(a branch of the hapatic portal vein)
what are liver sinusoids? leaky capillaries between hepatic plates
what are kupffer cells hepatic macrophages
where does the blood enter the liver> the portal vein
what is entering the liver through the portal vein? blood from entire GI tract
what are the functions of the hepatocyte? process bloodborne nutrients, store fat-soluble vitamins, perform detoxification, and produce 900 ml of bile per day
what is a yellow-green *alkaline* solution called? bile
what does bile contain? bile salts, bilirubin,cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids and electrolytes
what are bile salts? cholesterol derivative that function in fat emulsification and absorption
what is bilirubin? pigment formed from heme
what is the enterohepatic circulation> recycles bile salts
what is the circulation route of bile through the enterohepatic circulation> bile salts-duodenum-reabsorbed from ileum-hepatic portal blood-liver-secreted into bile
the gallbladder stores and concentrates bile by doing what? by absorbing its water and ions
the gallbladder releases bile via what? the cystic duct
where does the cystic duct flow into> the bile duct
the liver is a what kind of system>? low pressure
how prevalent is Hep C? 1.8% of US population
what is the largest source of people with Hep C infection? injecting drug us 60%
what is compensated liver disease? the body is coping(compensating) well enough to function and stay alive..with the disease
what is decompensated liver disease? the body can no longer cope with the disease and is failing to survive
what is varices? esophogas vericose veins
the hepatic vein takes filtered blood to where? the heart
Hepatic vein obstruction leads to what>? ascites
what are the symptoms of ascites? coughing, tiredness, pulmonary edema(excess fluid in the lungs)pumping action of the heart grows weaker, pleural effusion(excess fluid around the lungs) swelling in abdomen, swelling in ankles and legs
what is the earliest sign of ascites? swelling of abdomen
what is the best way to detect ascites? ultrasound
what is hepatic encephalopathy> It is characterized by various neurologic symptoms including changes in reflexes, changes in consciousness, memory loss, confusion..coma
what is one of the causes of hepatic encephalopathy? failure to metabolize amonia
what are some causes of a peptic ulcer? high acid and peptic content, irritation, poor blood supply, poor secretion of mucus, H. Pylori infection
where in the stomach are peptic ulcer more likely to be down by the pyloric area or cardia area
Most ulcers are caused by what? infection, not spicy food
what is the most common ulcer symptom> burning pain in stomach
can ulcers be cured for good? yes, because of antibiotics for H. Pylori
where are the H pylori bacteria found in the stomach? mucosa layer
Metastasized colon cancers frequently cause what? secondary liver cancer
90% of colon cancers are found at what age? past age 50
mastication is partly voluntary and partly what? reflexive
What enzymes aid in chemical digestion in the mouth? lipase, amylase
what is deglutition? swallowing
What two things rise in order to prevent food from entering the respiratory passageway? uvula and larynx
what sphincter relaxes to allow food to enter the esophagus? the esophageal sphincter
food is moved through the esophagus to the stomach by what? peristalsis
where does the involuntary phase begin in swallowing? when the food bolus is forced into the oropharynx
what sphincter must open in order to allow food into the stomach the gasteroesophageal
what does the lesser omentum connect? liver to stomach
where is the greater omentum located? hangs from greater curvature of stomach and hangs over transverse section of large intestines
what are the gastric glands mucous neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells, enteroendocrine cells
what do the mucous neck cells secrete? thin, acidic mucus
what do the parietal cells secrete? stomach acid (HCL)
what do the chief cells secrete pepsin and gastric lipase
protein digestion is initiated by what? pepsin
intrinsic factor is required for absorption of what? vitamin B12
lack of intrinsic factor results in what/ pernicious anemia
what delivers chyme to the small intestine? the stomach
what produces most of the gastric juices in the stomach? THE FUNDUS AND BODY
WHAT DO PARIETAL CELLS SECRETE? HCL(hydrochloric acid or gastic juice) and intrinsic factor
what does HCL do> denatures protein in food, activates pepsin and kills many bacteria
what activates pepsin? HCL
pepsin works best in what kind of environment? ACIDIC(LOW PH)
what buffers gastric acid to prevent damage to the epithelium of the stomach? bicarbonate
What does intrinsic factor do? complexes with vitamin b12 to permit absorption
where do hormones go in the body? everywhere
which three chemicals stimulate parietal cells? Ach, histamine, and gastrin
Does hydrochloric acid directly function in digestion? no, it kills microorganisms, lowers the stomach pH to between 1.5 and 2.5; and activates pepsinogen. Pepsinogen is an enzyme that starts protein digestion. Pepsinogen is produced in cells that line the gastric pits. It is activated by cleaving off a porti
what inhibits gastric secretion and duodenal filling? enterogastric reflex and enterogastrones
which chyme moves quickly through the duodenum? carbohydrate rich
which chyme moves slowly through the duodenum? fatty chyme
where is chemical digestion completed? in the small intestines
where is the majority of water absorbed? in the small intestines
how long does food stay in the small intestines/ 3-6 hours
where is the small intestine located? from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
which of the small intestines is largest? ileum
what do the circular folds(plicae circulares) do? slows chyme down
what are the simple columnar absorptive cells called>? enterocytes
where are peyers patches located? in the submucosa of the small intestines
what does the pancreas excrete? insulin and glucagon
what do acini in the pancreas secrete? pancreatic juice
what are acini cells? clusters of secretory cells
zymogen granules of secretory cells contain what>? digestive enzymes
where is the pancreas located> mostly retroperitoneal
Pancreatic juice is what type of solution? watery alkaline(PH 8) that neutralizes chyme
what type of electrolytes are in pancreatic juice? primarily HCO3-
What enzymes are in the pancreatic juice? amylase, lipases, nucleases are secreted in active form but require ions or bile for optimal activity
Proteases is secreted in the pancreatic juice in what form?? inactive
where is the proteases activated? in the duodenum
trypsinogen is activated to trypsin by what? brush border enzyme enteropeptidase
where is trypsinogen activated at? in the pancreas
what is trypsinogen activated into? trypsin
what are activated by trypsin? procarboxypeptidase and chymotrypsinogen
where is the pancreas located in the abdominal cavity? upper left quadrant
what stimulates the gallbladder to contract? CCK from intestinal cells exposed to proteins and fat chyme
what causes the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax? cck
bile comes back through what? the portal system
bile secretion is stimulated by what? bile salts in enterohepatic circulation &n secretion from intestinal cells exposed to HCL and fatty chyme
cck induces the secretion of what? enzyme rich pancreatic juice by acini
secretin causes secretion of what/ bicarbonate rich pancreatic juice by duct cells
what three things do you need for chemical digestion-Hydrolysis to take place? water, enzymes, energy nutrient
carbohydrate gets converted into what? glucose
protein and fat get converted into what? amino acids and fatty acids and glycerol
what enzymes are involved in digestion of nucleic acids? pancreatic ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease
How is nucleic acid absorbed? through active transport
where are nucleic acids transported to ? the liver
how are the nucleic acids transported to the liver? via hepatic portal vein
what are some causes of malabosorption of nutrients/ anything that interferes with delivery of bile or pancreatic juice or damage to the intestinal mucosa(bacterial infection)
what forces feces into the rectum mass movement
what initiates spinal defecation reflex? distension
what do parasympathetic signals do? stimulate contraction of the sigmoid colon and rectum and relax the internal anal sphincter
what allows relaxation of the external anal sphincter? conscious control
what is the largest gland in the body? the liver
the liver receives 80% of its blood from where? the portal vein
the liver recieves 20% of its blood from where? from the heart via the hepatic artery and arterioles
Created by: campjandk