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Unit 1

AP Biology Unit 1 Vocabulary-Magdaleno

Adhesion the clinging of one substance to another
Cohesion the phenomenon in which a substance is held together by hydrogen bonds
Surface Tension a measure of how difficult it is to stretch/break the surface of a liquid
Hydrogen bond bond formed when oppositely charged regions of neighboring water molecules are attracted to each other
Polar the unequal sharing of electrons in a molecule
Atom the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
Essential Element a chemical required for an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce
Macromolecule a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
Cleavage the process of cytokineses in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane.
Dehydration Synthesis a chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
Hydrolysis a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers
Monomer the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Amino Acid an organic molecule possessing both a carboxylic and an amino group. Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
Amino Terminus/ N-Terminus is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the the free amino group located at the end of a polypeptide
Carbohydrates a sugar or one of its dimers or one of its polymers
Carboxyl Terminus/C-Terminus is the end of the amino acid chain referring to the carboxyl group
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) a double stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with dexeribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Adenine (A) and thymine
Deoxyribose the sugar component of nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group then ribose. the sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
Hydrophilic having an affinity for water
Hydrophobic having no affinity for water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water
lipid any group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids that mix poorly, if at all, with water
Nitrogenous Base A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base. The nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C).
Nucleic Acid a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves a blueprint for all proteins , through the action of all proteins, for all cellular activities . The two types are DNA and RNA.
Nucleotide the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one more phosphate groups.
Phosphate a chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
Phospholipids a lipid made up of a glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that
Polymer a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds.
Protein a biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure
R group is the chemical group that is attached to the backbone
Ribonucleic Acid a type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrgenous bases adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulat
Ribose the sugar component of RNA nucleotides
Saturated fats a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton
Unsaturated fats a fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
3' 3 prime; indicated the carbon molecule on a DNA sugar molecule
5' 5 prime; indicated the carbon molecule on a DNA sugar molecule
Alpha Helice a coiled region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between atoms of the polypeptide backbone
Antiparallel-in regards to DNA referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix
Beta-Sheet one form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of polypeptide backgrounds
Covalent Bond a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Double Helix the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent anti parallel polynucleotide strand wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape.
Peptide short chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Polypeptide a polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Primary Structure the level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone
Subunit a protein unit that co-assembles with other protein molecules to form a protein complex
Synthesis the production of an organic compound in a living thing, especially as aided by enzymes
Tertiary Structure the overall shape of a molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges.
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone for the strongly bonded alternating chain of sugar molecules and phosphate ions on a molecule of nucleic acid
Created by: KassidyM



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