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Classification and Tree of Life

taxonomy the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
taxon any named taxonomic group of any rank in the hierarchical classification of organisms; for example: family, genus, or species
binomial nomenclature a naming system that gives each organism a two-word scientific name consisting of the genus name followed by the species name
genus the level of classification that comes after family and contains similar species
species the level of classification that indicates the ability to produce fertile offspring between two organisms
phylogeny the evolutionary history of species or taxonomic group
cladistics a phylogenic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa
cladogram a diagram that is based on patters of shared derived traits and that shows evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
derived character a feature that evolved only within a particular taxonomic group
Bacteria Taxonomic group that contains prokaryotes, extremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division
Archaea Taxonomic domain that contains prokaryotes (most of which are known to live in extreme environments) that are distinguished from other prokaryotes by differences in their cell walls
Eukarya taxonomic domain that contains all eukaryotes in kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
Created by: lpgullett
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