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Pearson GCSE Combined Science Biology Higher

Which cell structure is found in plant and animal cells but not in bacterial cells? (nucleus)
Give one example of a disease that can be caught from another person. (any communicable/infectious disease, e.g. flu or a cold)
Give an example of a disease that is not passed from person to person. (any non-communicable disease, e.g. cancer, diabetes)
Name a type of organism that can cause disease. (any one from: bacterium, virus, protist, fungus)
Suggest one way in which infectious diseases are spread. (any suitable method, e.g. by sneezing, in air, in water, by touching faeces)
What might a doctor give to someone who has a bacterial disease? (antibiotic)
Give one symptom of flu. (any one from: high temperature/fever, aches, runny nose, sore throat)
What does the immune system do? (protect against infection)
Which term describes bacteria that are not harmed by an antibiotic? (antibiotic resistant)
Describe one thing you can do to stay healthy. (any suitable answer such as: avoid infection, get regular exercise, eat a good diet, avoid stress)
Which term means when part or all of the body is not working properly for a reason other than injury? (disease)
Lung cancer, as a result of smoking, is which kind of disease? (non-communicable/lifestyle disease)
Which kinds of disease do pathogens cause? (communicable/infectious diseases)
What is meant when two factors are correlated? (they change in a similar way)
Give one reason why a person with one disease may be more likely to get another disease. (anything similar to: first disease damages immune system, first disease damages natural barriers to infection, first disease damages organ system)
What is meant by causation? (a change in something makes something else happen)
The WHO definition of health includes physical well-being. Give an example of physical well-being. (anything similar to: absence of disease, healthy diet, sleeping well, regular activity, limiting the intake of harmful substances)
Give an example of social well-being. (anything similar to: how well you get on with people, how your surroundings affect you)
Give an example of mental well-being. (anything similar to: feeling happy, feeling good about yourself)
Scurvy and anaemia are non-communicable diseases. What other sort of disease can they be classified as? (deficiency diseases/diseases due to poor diet)
Is alcoholic liver cirrhosis a communicable or non-communicable disease? (non-communicable)
Which type of disease is passed from parent to offspring in their genes? (genetic disease)
What causes malnutrition? (a poor diet/diet without the right balance of nutrients)
What causes a deficiency disease? (not getting enough of a nutrient from food)
Give one example of a deficiency disease. (any suitable answer such as anaemia, kwashiorkor, scurvy)
Give an example of a lifestyle factor that is linked to disease. (any suitable answer such as diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption)
If the amount of alcohol a person drinks increases, how will their risk of liver disease change? (increase)
What is the function of the liver that makes it particularly likely to be damaged by alcohol? (It breaks down toxic substances including alcohol.)
Describe one problem that alcohol consumption causes for society. (any suitable answer such as cost of treating people with liver disease, loss of working days, increased risk of deaths by drink driving)
What is cardiovascular disease? (disease of the heart and/or circulatory system)
Is cardiovascular disease communicable or non-communicable? (non-communicable)
Name two ways of measuring obesity. (BMI and waist : hip ratio)
How does diet affect obesity? (Eating too much increases mass/obesity.)
How does exercise affect obesity? (More exercise can decrease obesity.)
How is obesity correlated with cardiovascular disease? (Increasing obesity increases the risk of disease.)
How is smoking tobacco correlated with cardiovascular disease? The more a person smokes, the greater the person’s risk of cardiovascular disease.)
Name two different types of treatment for cardiovascular disease. (any two from: bypass surgery or stent surgery; lifelong medication such as to prevent blood clots or reduce blood pressure; lifestyle changes such as giving up smoking, increasing exercise or changing diet)
What is a pathogen? (a microorganism that causes disease in/harms the body)
Are diseases caused by pathogens communicable or non-communicable? (communicable)
Which type of pathogen is HIV? (virus)
Which type of pathogen causes malaria? (protist)
Which species is affected by chalara dieback? (ash trees)
Which type of pathogen causes cholera? (bacterium)
Which organ does tuberculosis damage? (lungs)
Which pathogen causes haemorrhagic fever? (Ebola virus)
What are the symptoms of malaria? (damage to blood and liver, fever)
What are the symptoms of infection by Helicobacter? (stomach ulcers)
How can the spread of chalara dieback be reduced or prevented? (by destroying infected wood)
Why does killing mosquitoes help prevent malaria? (It stops the malaria pathogen being spread.)
Which term means using evidence to suggest what is causing infection? (diagnosis)
Name two environmental causes of damage to crop plants. (any two suitable such as: nutrient deficiency, drought, waterlogging, heat stress, cold, wind)
Describe one visible symptom of disease on the leaves of a crop plant. (any one suitable, such as yellow/non-green leaves, curled leaves, spotted leaves)
How could a farmer check if unhealthy leaves on a crop were caused by lack of nitrogen? (soil nutrient test)
Which term means looking at how a disease spreads through a crop over time? (distribution analysis)
Suggest one lab test that might identify the pathogen causing plant disease. (any one suitable such as: visual identification, genetic analysis)
Describe one physical barrier that plants have to infection. (any one from cuticle, cell wall)
Give one example of an STI – sexually transmitted infection. (any one suitable such as: AIDS/HIV, Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis)
Which barrier to infection traps pathogens and dirt in the lungs? (mucus)
Name a chemical defence against infection in the stomach. (hydrochloric acid)
Which barrier to infection covers the body? (skin)
Why does that barrier protect against infection? (thick/difficult for pathogens to get through)
How are trapped pathogens moved out of the lungs? (movement of cilia)
How does the chemical defence in the stomach help to protect against infection? (It is highly acidic, which kills many pathogens.)
Which chemical defence against infection is found in tears and saliva? (lysozyme)
How does this chemical defence protect against infection? (The enzyme breaks down bacterial cell walls.)
How are Chlamydia and HIV transmitted? (sexually transmitted infections/STIs)
Explain one way that the spread of Chlamydia or HIV could be reduced or prevented. (any answer that indicates prevention of contact with sexual fluids, or infected breast milk to a baby)
What usually triggers an immune response? (presence of pathogen/antigen in body)
What name is given to the molecules released into the blood by immune system cells? (antibodies)
Which type of blood cell is important in the immune response? (white blood cell/lymphocyte)
What name is given to the molecules on pathogens that the immune system responds to? (antigen)
Which cells are left in the blood after an infection has been cleared? (memory lymphocytes)
What is the function of the cells left in the blood after infection? (to protect against further infection by the same pathogen)
Does immunity to one pathogen make you immune to other pathogens? (no [usually])
Give two ways that a secondary response differs from a primary response to an infection. (faster and much larger production of antibodies)
Which name is given to the inactive form of a pathogen used in immunisation? (vaccine)
Why are people immunised against diseases? (to stop them being ill if they are infected with particular pathogens)
Which medicines are used to treat infections caused by bacteria? (antibiotics)
When possible new medicines are being developed, what are they tested on in the first stage of testing? (cell/tissue cultures)
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