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EMTC Chapter 19

EMTC Chapter 19 - Complete Basic Worktext - Patients with Respiratory Distress

define pathophysiology the study of how disease affects normal body processes
Respirator distress can be the presenting problem in a variety of serious conditions such as heart attack, fluid in the lungs (conjestive heart failure), and worsening of long term lung conditions such as emphysema
what is the primary function of the respiratory system? Moving oxygen into the bloodstream and to the tissues and the removal of waste products generated by the body. This is essential to life.
parietal pleura membrane that is attached to the chest wall
viscreal pleura membrane that is attached to the lung surface
dead space areas of the lungs outside the alveoli where gas exchange with the blood does not take place
foreign substances entering the lungs is referred to as aspiration
alveoli are often described as grape-like clusters
hypoxia is a reduced level of oxygen in the blood.
hypercarbia excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
the area that is posterior to the moutn and above the larnyx is called the oropharynix
oxygen is transferred to the blood and waste products are removed in the alvioli
The _______ is the tissue that folds over the tracheal opening to prevent solids and liquids from entering the lungs epiglottis
the lung has two pleura the _______ pleura is attached to the chest wall; the _________ pleura is attached to the surface of the lungs Parietal; visceral
Areas where no transfer of oxygen takes place in the lungs are called dead space
Questions on scene size up of a resperatory patients do you see home oxygen devices? medications? What position is the patient in.
indicates a patient in serious condition anxiety, restlessness, or altered mental status
define hypoxia an insufficiency of oxygen in the bodys tissues
define hypercarbia excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
define tripod position position that may be assumed during respiratory distress to facilitate breathing. the patient usually sits or may stand or crouch leaning forward with hands placed on the bed, chair, table or knees
define accessory muscles in the neck chest back and abdomen used to assist ventilations in respiratory distress
wheezing high pitched musical lung sounds created by air moving through constricted air passages
gurgling intermittent low pitched sounds indicative of fluids in the upper airway
snoring intermittent low pitched sounds heard coming during inhalation. Often indicative of partial upper airway obstruction caused by the tounge and associated soft tissue
stridor a harsh high-pitched sound that generally occurs during ihalation but can also occur during exhalation. indicatactive of partial upper airway obstruction
work of breathing effort needed for adequite ventellation
respiratory problems are often a sign of underlying _______ problems Cardiac
pertinent negatives questions that are important to know the answers to even if the answer is no.
Pertinent negatives for respiratory distress patients Do you have chest pain or discomfort do you have pain or discomfort in your neck jaw or arms have you ever had a heart problem have you noticed swollen ankles, or weight gain recently have you had to sleep on more pillows recently?
pulse oximetry use of an electronic device to determine the amount of oxygen carried by the hemoglobin in the blood. Known as the oxygen saturation or SpO2
Cheyne-Stokes respirations deep respirations alternating with very shallow respirations there may also be a period of apnea in the cycles. Seen in patients who have brain injury or end-stage brain tumors
Apnea absence of any breathing or respiratory effort
Hyperventilation breathing that is abnormally rapid or deep
Centeral neurogenic hyperventilation very rapid deep respirations usually caused by head injuries or strokes that involve the brain stem
Kussmaul’s respirations rapid deep ventilations usually caused by very acidic blood such as some diabedic conditions and aspirin overdose
Asthma a disease that has attacks involving bronchoconstriction and mucus production with significant difficulty breathing
Bronchoconstriction constriction of the bronchioles in the lungs caused by allergies, respiratory infections, exersize or emotion
Triggers allergies, respiratory infections , exersize, or emotaion that may cause bronchoconstriction
Mucus slippery secretion that lubricates and protects airway surfaces
Status asthmaticus prolong life threating asthma attack often not responding to the patients own medications
Chronic bronchitis condition where the lining fo the bronchiole is inflamed. Excess mucus is formed and remains in the airway. The accumulations become severe as the body is unable to clear the mucus from the airway
Emphysema condition where the walls of the alveoli break down and lose surface area
Stale Air Air that remains in the alveoli increasing carbon dioxide levels in the lungs
Drive to breathe stimulation to breathe. Usually related to the level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Hypoxic drive when the stimulus to breathe is the amount of oxygen in the blood rather than the normal drive to breathe that is related to the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
Auscultation assessment techniquie of listening usually with a stethoscope
Midaxillary a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
Pulmonary edema a condition of fluid in the lungs
Crackles lung sounds created in pulmonary edema when alveoli closed because of fluid open they are usually heard on inspiration as fine crackling sounds
Rhonchi low pitched snoring or rattling sounds caused by secretions in the larger airways these may be seen in chronic lung diseases and possibly pneumonia
When you get a quiet chest you should assess for adequate respiration
Nebulizers devices that continuously administer a vaporized medication as opposed to the inhaler that provides a one time dose.
Croup viral illness charachterized by inspiratory and expiratory stridor and a seal bark like cough.
Sign of inadequate oxygen (hypoxia) in children an abnormally low pulse rate
True or false is it inappropriate to have a respiratory patient walk to the stretcher? true
Metered dose inhaler device that patients use to breathe in medication
Examples of medications used in emergencies to improve breathing albuterol (combivent, proventil, ventolin), pirbuterol acetate (maxair), iprotropium bromide (atrovent)
Examples of medications that are used for long term prevention of breathing problems flunisolide (AeroBid), beclomethasone dipropioate (Vanceril), fluticasone and salmeterol (Advair)
Sympathetic nervous system part of the nervous system that activates the “fight or flight” response
Small volume nebulizer (SVN) method of continuously administering a vaporized medication as opposed to the inhaler that provides a one time dose.
Created by: superjacent