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Biology Study Guide

Module 9

1a. The immutability of species The idea that each individual species on the planet was specially created by God and could never fundamentally change.
1b. Microevolution The theory that natural selection can, over time, take an organism and transform it into a more specialized species of that organism.
1c. Macroevolution The hypothesis that processes similar to those at work in microevolution can, over eons of time, transform an organism into a completely different kind of organism.
1d. Strata Distinct layers of rock.
1e. Fossils Preserved remains of once-living organisms.
1f. Paleontology The study of fossils.
1g. Structural homology The study of similar structures in different species.
2. Where did Darwin do most of the work which led to his hypothesis of evolution? HMS Beagle.
3. Did Darwin ever recant his scientific beliefs? He did not.
4. What was the main idea that Thomas Malthus's work gave to Darwin? The individuals which have the certain qualities to survive the specific elements have a better chance of surviving than individuals without.
5. What was the main idea that Sir Charles Lyell's work gave to Darwin? The present is the key to the past.
6. What age-old concept was Darwin able to dispel with his research? The immutability of species.
7. Suppose a herd of horses were living in an area where food near the ground was scarce but there was plenty of food in the trees.
7. (continued) If, after several generations, the horses gave rise to giraffes that could easily reach the food in the trees, would this be an example of microevolution or macroevolution? Macroevolution.
8. Consider a fish population that is trying to survive under conditions of extremely cold water.
8. (continued) If, over several generations, the fish develop thicker fat layers under their skin for better insulation, is this an example of microevolution or macroevolution? Microevolution.
9. From a genetic point of view, what is the main difference between microevolution and macroevolution? In microevolution the genetics are only slightly altered. In macroevolution the genetics are completely changed to another species.
10. In this module, we studied four main sets of data: the geological column, the fossil record, structural homology, and molecular biology. For each set of data, indicate whether it is evidence for or against macroevolution or if it is inconclusive. Geological column- Inconclusive because it could be for or against macroevolution given the way in which it was made. Fossil record- Against because of missing links.
10. (continued) Briefly explain why. Structural homology- Against because the genetics are not alike. Molecular biology- Against because simple to complex percentages aren't there.
11. Name two creatures that macroevolutionists claim are intermediate links and why they are not really intermediate links. Nebraska Man- Turned out to be a pig tooth. Australopithecus afarensis- Claimed to be eons old but research later discovered that it is no different from today's apes.
12. What is the Cambrian Explosion? Why is it a problem for macroevolution? Supposedly the earliest rock layer, but complex organisms are in it. Only the simplest organisms are supposed to be in the rock.
13. What are the four ways a bacterium can become resistant to an antibiotic? Conjugation, transformation, transduction, and loss of genetic information which does not allow antibiotics to enter.
14. If a bacterium has a mutation that makes it resistant to an antibiotic, does information get added to its genetic code? No, information gets lost.
15. Consider the following amino acid sequences that make up a small portion of a protein: a. Gly-Ile-Gly-Gly-Arg-His-Gly-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Glu-Glu(NH2)-Lys-Lys-Lys b. Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Ala-Arg-Lys
15.(cont.a.)c. Leu-Ile-Gly-Gly-Arg-His-Ser-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Ala-Glu(NH2)-Arg-Arg-Arg Which protein would you expect to be the most similar to aprotein with the following subset of amino acids?
15. (cont.b.) Gly-Ile-Phe-Gly-Arg-His-Ser-Gly-Glu(NH2)-Ala-Glu(NH2)-Arg-Arg-Lys c.
16. Based on macroevolutionary assumptions, which organism's cytochrome C should most resemble that of a yeast: a kangaroo or a bacterium? Bacterium.
17. What main problem with Darwin's hypothesis did neo-Darwinism hope to solve? How species could add genetic information to change to a different species.
18. What problem with Darwin's hypothesis did punctuated equilibrium attempt to solve? Why there are gaps in the fossil record.
19. How would an adherent to punctuated equilibrium explain the lack of intermediate links in the fossil record? The mutations from one species to another were too rapid for fossils to be preserved.
20. What problems mentioned in this module still exist for those who believe in punctuated equilibrium? How populations could sexually reproduce, because the mutations would have to be slow enough for them to reproduce and fast enough so that the mutants don't appear in the fossil record.
Created by: LiseBrinkley



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