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Chapter 5

cell division (1st semester, 9th grade)

What is the difference between large cells and small cells? How are small cells more practical than larger cells? smaller cells have more surface area w less volume which makes it easier to transport nutrients across them membrane
What is cell division? splitting one cell into 2
What is cell division essential for? (3 things) growth repair and reproduction
What is growth? result of cells producing cells through cells division
What is repair? new cells are formed to replace cells that are lost or injured
What are the 2 types of reproduction? sexual/asexual
What is asexual reproduction? process when offspring is produced by one parent
What is sexual reproduction? produces offspring that have a combination of genetic material from 2 parents
What are the 2 main divisions of reproduction? interphase/cell division
What is G1? g=gap, characterized by growth and development
What is G2? cell will synthesize orgenelles and other materials
interphase definition part of cell cycle that happens between divisions
what happens during interphase? calls are very active, producing all materials needed for growth and prep for cell division
how much does interphase account for? 90%
what are the 3 phases of interphase? G1, G2, S
what does the "s" stand for in S phase? s- synthesis
what happens during S phase? chromosomes of nucleus duplicate , and replication occurs when material makes copy of itself
what does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic acid
where is DNA found? in nucleus and holds all genetic info for organisms
why do we need DNA? so genetic info can be passed from parent to child to continue human species
what happens during S phase to DNA? each chromosome replicates, then the chromatin is formed into chromatids which are short.
what do sister chromatids have in common? they're identical structures that result from chromosome replication, and they become visible during cell division
what is the point where sis chromatids are joined? centromere
What are chromatin? thin, fiberous form of DNA and protein
What are the chomatin formed into? chromatids
What are sister chromatids? 2 identical structures that result from chromosome replication
What is mitosis? continuous process that forms 2 new nuclei in preparation for 2 new daughter cells
What are the 4 phases of mitosis? propahse, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is metaphase? chromosomes are pulled into the center of the cell where they line up on the metaphase plate
where does prophase happen? cytoskeleton
what happens during prophase? proteins assemble into microtubules forming structures called spindle fibers
what's going on during late prophase? nuclear envelope disintegrates and part of each chromosome centromere attaches to spindle fiber. fibers then pull sis chromatids toward center of cell
what happens during anaphase? centromeres divide and spindle fibers pull 1 set of chromatids toward opposite sides of cell, then separated chromatids are identical sets of daughter chromosomes
what happens at end of anaphase? 2 sets of daughter chromosomes are at opposite "poles" of cell
what happens during cytokinesis in animals? is cytoplasm where cell finally divides to form 2 identical cells
What is telophase? 2 daughter nuclei are formed around each set of chromsomes which uncoil to form loose mass of chromatin spindle fibers disassemble
what happens during cytokinesis in plants? cell plate begins to form during late anaphase which develops into new cell wall
What happens reproduction? genetic information of a patent is combined with the other parent to produce a child
how many chromosomes are in a human cell? 46
What is a diploid cell? cell that has 2 complete sets of chromosomes and are usually somatic
Why is it important for sex cells to be haploid? because if each parent had 46 chromosomes then the child would have 92. haploid cells are only 23
How does meiosis work? (2) meiosis I and meiosis II
What are the differences btwn meiosis and mitosis? meiosis- 4 genetically diverse haploid cells mitiosis-2 genetically identical diploid cells
What is prophase I? chromosomes condense and each homologous pair becomes attached to one another (this formation is called tetrad)
which process is meiosis part of? process of developing genetic diversity through cell divisions
where does meiosis happen? 2 types: -somatic=almost all cells in body -reproductive =(gametes) egg and sperm cells
are human sex cells haploid (n)? yes. only contain half of # of chromosomes as diploid cells
what are haploid reproductive cells called? gametes/ sex cells
what is meiosis part of? cellular reproduction in which # of chromosomes is reduced by half so daughter cells are haploid
what is homologous? all but one of those 23 cells are called homologous pairs, which means that they are same size and code for same info
what happens b4 meiosis 1? diploid cell replicates its chromosomes so each chromosome consists of 2 sis chromatids
What happens during tetrad formation? process called crossing over
what is crossing over? sister chromatids cross to each other and exchange genetic info
What is anaphase I? homologous pairs are pulled to opposite sides of cell (sister chromatids are still attached)
What is the difference btwn meiosis I and meiosis II? w reg meiosis metaphase doesn't include the tetrad form
What is variation? differences btwn members of a population
where does the variation of genetic info come from? the mixing of parent genes during sexual reproduction
meiosis process prophase 1, metaphase1, anaphase1, telophase 1
what's metaphase 1? chromosomes line up along middle of cell like in mitosis but w/ homologous pairs still in tetrad form
telophase 1 is...? ends as mitosis w/ 2 new nuclei w/. chromosomes inside them. difference is that sis chromatids are still attached. cell will then divide and go right into meiosis 2
3 main differences between meiosis and mitosis 1- daughter cells haploid instead diploid 2- daughter cells are not genetically identical 3- cell division takes place twice producing 4 daughter cells instead of 2
what happens to gametes? combine randomly during fertilization
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