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Chapter 28

Human Nutrition

Autotroph Make their own food e.g Plants through Photosynthesis
Heterotroph Take in food from a live source e.g Parasites, Fleas
Ingestion The taking in of food into the digestive system
Digestion The physical and chemical breakdown of food
Absorption Occurs when digested food passes through the digestive system and enters the blood
Egestion The removal of unabsorbed waste from the digestive system
Dental Formula 2( I 2/2, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 3/3)
Oesophagus Carries food to stomach through peristalsis
Stomach Muscular bag that holds and digest food Coated by mucus Lining is folded forming millions of gastric glands Contains HCl (pH 1-2) to kill of bacteria
Pancreas Makes insulin to regulate the glucose level in the blood The pancreatic juices release sodium bicarbonate which neutralises chyme
Liver Detoxifies body from poisons such as alcohol or drugs Breaks down old/damaged red blood cells
Small Intestine Duodenum-Final part of digestion Ileum-Absorption
Enzymes Amylase-Starch-Maltose Lipase-Fats-1 Glycerol and 2 Fatty Acids Pepsin-Potein-Amino Acids
Large Intestine Caecum and Appendix - Vestigal Organs Absorbs water Colon produces symbiotic bacteria such as Vitamin B and K Rectum and Anus - Faeces waits to be ejested
2 functions for symbiotic bacteria 1) Obtains food from humans and in return produces useful vitamins such as Vitamin B and K 2)Prevents growth of disease-causing fungi
Why do humans need a balanced diet? It is needed to ensure that the body gets all the necessary energy and nutrients
Benefits of dietary fibre It's made up of cellulose from plant cell walls Absorbs and stores water Stimulates peristalsis
Created by: megan.mustafa
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