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Chapter 4

photosythesis and cellular respiration (1st semester, 9th grade)

What does ATP consist of? 1 adrenaline, 1 ribose, and 3 phosphates
How does the cell build new ATP molecules? by attacking a third phosphate to ADP molecules
Where does the energy to build a new bond come from? food that comes into the cell
Where does energy come from? organisms consuming some kind of food
What 2 ways of classification do organisms obtain food? autotrophs and heterotrophs
What are autotrophs? organisms that can make food form carbon dioxide and an energy source like sunlight
What is an example of an autotroph that doesn't get energy from the sun? some underwater bacteria are able to produce food they get from inorganic compounds on seafloor
What are heterotrophs? organisms that can't make food on their own
Who do heterotrophs rely on? autotrophs or other heterotrophs
What are examples of heterotrophs? animals, fungi, and many unicellular organisms
What is photosynthesis? process by which autotrophs turn sunlight into energy usable form
What do autotrophs that perform photosynthesis contain? chemicals called pigments
What exactly are pigments? a molecule that absorbs certain wave lengths of light and reflect others
What is a really important pigment in autotrophs? chlorophyll
What exactly is chlorophyll? photosynthetic pigment that absorbs violet, blue, and red
where do autotrophs store pigments in? in organelles called chloroplasts
what is chloroplast? an organelle that does photosynthesis
what are the 3 parts to chloroplast? thylakoid, grana, and stroma
what's thylakoid? a disc shaped structure that contains all of the pigments necessary for photosynthesis
what happens inside the thylakoid? chlorophyll molecules and other pigments organize into units called photosystems
what happens during photosynthesis? plants take sun and water and carbon dioxide and create sugar and releases oxygen as a byproduct
whats the formula for photosynthesis? 6CO2+6H2O+(light energy)-C6H12O6+6O2
what are the 2 stages in photosynthesis? light dependent reaction, and Calvin cycle
autotrophs convert sugar into ATP and uses that energy to perform what? life processes like growth and reproduction
what else breaks down sugar in order to release energy? animals
what's the process of breaking sugars down to release energy? cellular respiration
what is cellular respiration? series of chemical reactions which produces ATP
what are the 2 types of cellular respiration? aerobic and anaerobic
which of these processes needs oxygen: aerobic and anaerobic? aerobic- needs oxygen anaerobic- no need for oxygen
3 stages of aerobic respiration are: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport
what is glycolysis converted into? pyruvate
where does glycolysis process happen? in the cells cytoplasm outside of the mitochondria
how many ATP are produced during glycolysis? 2 ATP
what is energy from NADH and FADH2 transferred into? ATP
what does the electron transport process need? oxygen
how many ATP are produced during the electron transport process? 32 ATP
how many ATP are produced during the aerobic respiration process? 36 ATP from 1 molecule of sugar
what is aerobic respiration? process that releases energy from food molecules in absence of oxygen
where does the process of aerobic respiration happen? in some unicellular organisms or in some small cells of multicellular organisms (like muscle cells)
what does anaerobic respiration use? fermentation
what is fermentation? process of extracting energy from pyruvate in absence of oxygen
what are the 2 types of anaerobic respiration? alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid
during alcoholic fermentation, what are the 2 byproducts? carbon dioxide and ethanol (alcohol)
in lactic acid fermentation, what does the pyruvate convert to? lactic acid
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