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Prep Biology Midterm

QuestionAnswer
What is the function of lipids? To store energy, and to make biological membranes and waterproof coverings
What is the function of carbohydrates? To be the primary energy source in most living things
What is the function of proteins? To repair the body and transport things in and out of the cell
What is the function of nucleic acids? To store and transmit information
Examples of lipids: Fats, phospholipids, steroids
Examples of carbohydrates: Glucose, polysaccharides, glycogen, starch
Examples of proteins: Sickle cell anemia, enzymes
Examples of nucleic acids: DNA, RNA
What is the function of the chloroplast? It uses energy from sunlight to make the food for the plant
What is the function of vacuoles? They are fluid-filled sacs for storage
What is the function of lysosomes? To break down food, bacteria, and worn out parts for the cell
What is the function of the golgi apparatus? To modify, sort, and package molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage or transport out of cell
What is the function of the ribosomes? They are protein factories for the cell that join amino acids to make the proteins
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? To produce and move lipids
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? Contains ribosomes that make proteins for the cell
What is the function of the mitochondrion? To generate cellular energy. It is also the site of cellular respiration.
What is the function of the cytoskeleton? To maintain the cell's shape and to move the organelles within the cell.
What is the function of the nucleus? To control the normal activities of the cell and contains DNA in chromosomes
What is the function of the cytoplasm? To provide a medium for chemical reactions to take place and holds organelles in place
What is the function of the cell membrane? To control what enters and leaves the cell
What is the function of the cell wall? To support and protect the cell
What is the difference between Mitosis and Meiosis? Mitosis results in two identical daughter cells while Meiosis results in four sex cells.
Where does transcription occur? In the nucleus
Where does translation occur? In the ribososmes
What happens during transcription? Information from a strand of DNA is copied into a molecule of mRNA
What happens during translation? Amino acids are linked
What happens during a nonsense mutation? A regular codon becomes a STOP codon
What happens during a missense mutation? Causes change in type of amino acid being added
What happens during a silent mutation? Nothing changes; protein is built normally
What happens during an insertion mutation? One or more nucleotides are added to a normal sequence
What happens during a deletion mutation? One or more nucleotides are removed from a normal sequence
What is an allele? A form of a gene
What is incomplete dominance? Physical appearance is a blend of both alleles
What is co-dominace? Both the alleles of a gene are dominant, and the traits are equally expressed
Which disease is caused by having a third 'chromosome 21'? Down syndrome
What is genotype? An individual's collection of genes
What is phenotype? An individual's observable traits
What is a trait? A specific characteristic of an organism
What is a carrier? An individual who carries a disease and can pass it down genetically but does not show symptoms of the disease
What is karyotype? An individual's collection of chromosomes
Created by: briannn
 

 



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