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Unit 2 Homeostasis

Unit 2 Cell Transport & Homeostasis

Cell Membrane maintains homeostasis with the movement of water and the transport of molecules through selective permeability
Cell Membrane functions: maintain homeostasis, recognize other cells, facilitates and controls substances entering and exiting the cell, holds cytoplasm in place,
Homeostasis the ability of an organism or cell to maintain an internal balance
Diffusion Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration; molecules move down a concentration gradient
Osmosis Diffusion of water from an area of high concentration to low concentration; water molecules move down a concentration gradient
Concentration Gradient the difference in the number of molecules on either side of a cell membrane
Active Transport Movement of particles across a cell membrane from a region of LOW concentration to a region of HIGH concentration using proteins as pumps; molecules move UP a concentration gradient; REQUIRES ENERGY
Passive Transport Movement of particles across a cell membrane from a region of HIGH concentration to a region of LOW concentration ; molecules move DOWN a concentration gradient; NO energy required
Examples of Maintaining Homeostasis Guard cells around the stomata of a plant cell controlling water loss ; Aquatic organisms pumping water out of their cells; animal shivering while cold to generate movement for heat; people sweating when hot to cool the body; low oxygen levels causes an increase in respiration rate
Lipids Biomolecule - Fat and waxy substances which repel water and does not breakdown in water; insulates the body to maintain internal temperature ; example - phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane; blubber found on a whale
Proteins Biomolecule - embedded in the cell membrane to move large molecules and ions into and out of the cell
Facilitated Diffusion Movement of materials from an area high concentration to low concentration through a protein channel
Selective Permeability Movement of some molecules across the cell membrane while other molecules are not allowed to pass through
Nucleic Acids Biomolecule - Stores genetic material
Lipids Biomolecule - Fats & oils which serve as long-term energy storage
Carbohydrates Biomolecule - Sugar & Starches which serve as primary sources of energy
Proteins Biomolecule - provides structure for organisms and speed up the rate of chemical reactions by moving ions & large molecules across the cell membrane
Phospholipids make up the cell membrane with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails which form a double layer and act as a selectively permeable membrane
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