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Chapter 2

chemicals in organisms (1st semester, 9th grade)

carbohydrates group of chemicals that include sugars, starches and cellulose
sugars monosaccarides, diasaccharides, polysaccharides
monosaccharides one sugar
diasaccharides two sugars
polysaccharides many sugars (glycogen/starch)
starch the way that plants store energy
lipids fats, waxes, phospholipids
fats long term energy storage, insulation
waxes protection against water
phospholipids structural, forms membrane that surrounds cell
steroids structural
cellulose carbohydrate that is structural in plant walls
proteins movement, structure, transport, nutrition, regulation, defense
movement muscle contraction
structure collagen- bones, tendons, cartilage
regulation enzymes
transport hemoglobin helps blood cells transport oxygen
nutrition casein stores amino acids
defense antibodies
nucleic acids dna/rna
atoms fundamental unit of all elements
protons positive charge
neutrons neutral charge
electrons negative charge
ion atom of the same element that has lost or gained and electron
isotopes atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
radioactive isotopes an isotope that has an unstable nucleus
ionic bonds the transfer of electrons btwn atoms
covalent bonds the sharing of electrons btwn atoms
chemical reactions one or more substances are changed into a new substance
speeds up reactions heat and a catalyst
enzymes protein catalyst
metabolism combination of all chemical changes in an organism
homeostasis when an organism maintains stable internal conditions
solutions solute, solvent
solute substance that is dissolved in a solution
solvent the dissolving substance
hydrogen bonds weak chemical bonds btwn hydrogen and other atoms
cohesion water molecules cling to eachother through hydrogen bonds
expantions makes frozen water less dense and then ice freezes
element smallest particle that can't be broken down
compound group of elements
acid compound that releases hydrogen
base compound that releases hydroxide
salt compound that doesn't release either hydrogen and hydroxide
PH scale measurement of the concentration of the hydrogen ions present in a solution
polar molecules polar, non-polar
polar not shared equally
non-polar shared equally
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