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Cell bio-

RNA: structure , synthesis and processing

QuestionAnswer
RNA is the final product of some genes. (T/F) T
which is true ? RNA has Enzymatic activity RNA can reproduce itself both
Unlike DNA the sugar of the RNA backbone is ribose,
ribose differs from the deoxyribose of DNA by the presence of a OH- group on carbon 2 of the ribose.
what is different when comparing base- pairing in RNA and DNA some unusual base pairings occur in RNA ; G-U / U-U
Although RNA is generally single stranded, it forms three dimensional structures through pairing of the nucleotide bases and folding.
Bases pair between RNA molecules and within the same RNA molecule form a double helix
Base pair between RNA and DNA form RNA-DNA hybrid structures.
Base Pairing Forms Tertiary Structures from Single Stranded RNA (T/F ) T
long sequences of RNA that regulate specific functions in cells. Long non-coding RNA
tRNA :: Amino acids specified by the anticodons are covalently attached (by enzymes known as aminoacyl tRNA synthetases) to a conserved sequence (5’-CCA-3’) at the 3’ end (short arm)
How is tRNA charged with AA Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
a single aminoacyl tRNA synthetase will catalyze the reaction between a given amino acid and all of the tRNA with anticodons for the given amino acid. (T/F) T
that if an amino acid is chemically modified after it is bound to its tRNA the modified amino acid will not be inserted into the protein. False
kinds of rRNA in eukaryotes and prokaryotes eukaryotes :: 18S, 28S , 5.8S , 5.0S prokaryotes :: 16S , 23S and 5S
the only RNA that encodes proteins mRNA
Most eukaryotic mRNA have a long sequence of adenines at their 3’ end called a “polyA tail”.
Transcription is carried out by enzymes called RNA polymerase.
RNA is synthesized in the(direction ) 5’-3’ direction
RNA polymerase catalyzes linkage formation with ribose and not deoxyribose.(T/F) T
RNA polymerase does not require a primer
RNA polymerase is not as precise DNA polymerase (one mistake every 104 bases.) (T/F) T
transcription unit. is The transcribed segment of DNA
Transcription requires the opening and unwinding of a region of DNA. Enzymatic activities of the RNA polymerase protein subunits carry out this function (e.g., chromatin remodeling).
Signals encoded in DNA determine the boundary of genes (T/F) t ; and regulate where transcription begins and ends.
Prokaryotic RNA polymerases :: core enzyme consists of 4 protein subunits 2 called α, 1 called β, 1 called β‘
Prokaryotic RNA polymerases :: The Core enzyme does not contain all enzymatic functions needed for RNA synthesis (t/F) and Cannot bind to DNA promotor (t/F) F ; T ; A fifth subunit, called ___ is needed for binding promoters and initiation sigma (σ) factor :: Holoenzyme = core (α2ββ‘) plus a σ factor
Either strand of DNA can serve as the template for transcription . T
ensures the proper location and orientation of the RNA polymerase. promoter
Since RNA polymerease synthesizes RNA by adding nucleotides (to the 3’ end of the transcript) using the 5’ position of the incoming nucleotide, the 5’ to 3’ orientation -- determines which strand will serve as the template. of the promoter
Promoters are asymmetrical T
terminator of transcription can be factor independent or factor dependent
In termination of transcription ____ involves encountering sequences that can form a stem-loop hairpin structure followed immediately by a series of U residues in the growing RNA chain Factor independent (aka rho-independent)
In termination of transcription factor dependent(rho-dependent ) involves the action of a protein known as rho which can become associated with the transcriptional apparatus via recognition of certain sequences in the growing transcript (it does not require the “hairpin-U’s” structure)
what are the 3 types of eukaryotic RNA polymerases that transcribe specific types of genes RNA pol I , II, III Rna pol I -- for rRNAs RNA pol II - mRNA and snRNAs RNA pol iii - tRNAs, 5S rRNA and some snRNAs
general transcription factors proteins to initiate and complete the transcription process they position the pol at the start of a gene
The promoter in eukaryotes is a sequence of nucleotide bases that constitutes a recognition site for binding of the RNA polymerase-TF complex.
In eukaryotic cells many promoters contain an alternating repeat of T’s and A’s called the TATA box
The TATA sequence is typically located 25 bases upstream of the transcription start site (TSS).
Other promoters contain regions rich in C and G T
In eukaryotic cells transcription is initiated by the binding of TATA binding protein (TBP) to the TATA sequence.
RNA is a linear polymer that can form 3D structures as a result of base paring and folding (allows Enz activity). T
eukaryotic post transcriptional processing 5' cap with methylguanosine ; introl splicing ; poly a tail at 3'
Created by: jemalk
 

 



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