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Cell vocabulary

LT 1b: Cell vocabulary & Analogies

QuestionAnswer
Cell The most basic unit of life that can perform all processes necessary to life.
Unicellular An organism made of just one cell (ex: bacteria, yeast, most protists).
Multicellular An organism made of many cells (ex: plants, animals, most fungi).
Prokaryotic No nucleus - genetic material (DNA) is free floating in the cytoplasm. Includes all bacteria.
Eukaryotic Genetic material (DNA) is enclosed in a nucleus and there are many organelles. Includes all fungi, plants, animals, and protists.
Organelles Small structures in a cells cytoplasm that is specialized to do a specific job. Different types of cells can contain different organelles.
Nucleus Contains all the genetic material (DNA) in eukaryotic cells and controls most of the activities in the cell.
Chromosomes Coils of DNA found in the nucleus of the cell.
Nucleus Analogies: Project Manager, Principal of a School, General in the Army
Cell Membrane Outer border that protects the cell and controls what enters and leaves the cell. This organelle holds the contents of the cell together.
Cell Membrane Analogies: Screen Door, Pasta Strainer, Fence
Cell Wall Found in plant, fungi, and bacteria cells, but NEVER IN ANIMAL CELLS. This organelle provides protection and support.
Cytoplasm Clear fluid inside cells that holds the organelles and helps to move materials around in the cell. Chemical reactions occur here.
Mitochondria This organelle uses oxygen to break down food molecules to create energy called ATP. Muscle cells have the most of this organelle because they need more energy to move your body. It is the powerhouse of the cell.
Chloroplasts ONLY IN PLANT CELLS - collects energy from the sun to perform photosynthesis to make sugar (glucose) for plants. This organelle gives plants their green color.
Lysosomes Contains digestive enzymes used to break down old cell parts and digest invaders.
Ribosomes Transports materials between the cytoplasm and the nucleus; may be free floating or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum - MAKING PROTEINS IS THEIR MOST IMPORTANT JOB.
Vacuoles Plant cells have a large one that stores water. Animal cells have several smaller ones that store food, water, and/or waste.
Cell Wall Analogies: Brick Walls, Castle Walls
Vacuoles Analogies: Refrigerators, Storage Unit, Water Tower
Cytoplasm Analogies: Air surrounding us, Water in the pool when you go swimming, Egg White
Chloroplasts Analogies: Solar Panels, Ovens
Ribosomes Analogies: Worker Bees, Construction workers at a building site
Lysosomes Analogies: Garbage Truck, Garbage Disposal
Mitochondria Analogies: Power Plant, Generator
Created by: Mrs. Corey
 

 



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