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Unit 4 Study Guide

Anatomy and Physiology

the parts of a reflex arc are: sensory (afferent) neurons->integrating ctr->interneurons (efferent)
which part of a reflex arc carries impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS? sensory neurons
which part of a reflex arc carries impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands? interneurons
in a reflex arc muscles and glands are classified as: effactors
skeletal muscles are controlled by these PNS nerves: somatic
part of the nervous system the includes the brain and spinal cord: CNS
rough ER in cell body of neurons which are able to make neurotransmitters: nissl substance
trace the path of an impulse through a neuron: dendrite->cell body->axon->synapse->
cells that make up the myelin sheath in the PNS: schwan cells
cells that provide cushioning for neurons in the PNS: satalite cells
cells that perform phagocytosis in the CNS: microglia
cells that make up the myelin sheath in the CNS: oligodendrocytes
ciliated cells that make and circulate cerebrospinal fluis (CSF): ependymal
cells that make up the blood-brain barrier: astrocytes
what is the name given to the gaps between schwann cells? nodes of rompier
which of these can pass the blood-brain barrier readily? which cannot?: O2____, alcohol____, proteins_____, CO2_____, anesthetics_____, antibiotics____, y; y; n; y; y; n
gray matter contains __________________axons; white matter contains____________axons unmylenated; mylenated
chemical messengers which cross synapses are: neurotransmitters
the reversal of charge on an axon which marks the passage of an impulse is: depolarization
when a neuron is not conducting an impulse, it is in: resting potential
identify the part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland: hypothalmus
identify the part of the brain that contains the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain: brainstem
identify the part of the brain that the medulla oblongata reflex centers control: heart-rate, respiratory-rate
identify the part of the brain that controls conscious thinking and memory: cerebrium
identify the part of the brain that controls coordination and movements: cerebelum
identify the part of the brain that controls communication between herispheres of the cerebrum: corpus callosum
a bundle of neurons in the PNS is a _______; in the CNS is a _________ nerve; track
communication up and down the spinal cord is carried out by: white matter tracks
the tough membrane that protects the spinal cord and brain: meninges
name the layers of the meninges from superficial to deep: dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
inflammation of the meninges is called: meningitis
name the division of the autonomic nervous system which is active during periods of stress: sympathetic nervous system
name the division of the autonomic nervous system which handles routine body functions: parasympathetic nervous system
cranial and spinal nerves are part of the: CNS
which membrane covers the eyeball and eyelid? conjunctiva
which fluid is located in the anterior segment? aquious humor
which fluid is located in the posterior segment? vitreous humor
which eye layer has blood vessles to provide nutrients to the other layers? choroid
located in the center of the retina, the name means "yellow spot": macula lutea
depression containing cones, but no rods; high visual acuity area: fovea centralis
"blind spot" where the optic nerve leaves the retina: optic disc
transparent window of the eye; lets light in: cornea
glad that produces tears: lacrimal gland
this structure drains fluid from the anterior segment: scleral venous sinus
"white" of the eye; made up of tough, fibrous CT: sclera
the__________muscles move the eyes alloving convergence. extrensic
the ciliary muscle___________for close vision, allowing the lens to become rounded and_________for distance vision, allowing the lens to become flat contracts; relaxes
process in which the lens becomes rounded for close vision: accomodation
The_____controls the amount of light entering the eye by opening and closing the _________ iris; pupil
the two intrinsic muscles are the______________ and_______ ciliary muscle; iris
layer of the eye that contains photoreceptors and does visual processing: retina
nerve that takes visual image to the brain: optic nerve
part of the brain that interprets visual images: occipital lobe
trace the path of light through the eye: cornea->aqueous humor->pupil->lens->vitreous humor->retina
the receptors for hearing are located in this specific part of the cochlea: organ of corti
the receptors for equilibrium are located in the_________________and______________ semicircular canals; vestibule
membrane-lined spaces inside the ear are_____________labyrinth filled with_____________ membranous; endolymph
bony labyrinth is lined by____________filled with_____________ periosteum; perilymph
the bones of the middle ear are collectivly known as the___________and are called the 1)________ 2)___________ 3)___________ ossicles; maleus; incus; stapes
structure that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx: auditory tube
external ear structure that is made up of elastic cartilage and gathers sound: pina
the anatomical name for the eardrum is the: tempanic membrane
which membrane supports the haie-like receptors for hearing? basilar membrane
whicmembrane is superior to the hearing receptors? tectorial membrane
pressure relief valve that "calms the waves" in the perilymph: round window
which nerve carries hearing and equilibrium impulses from ear to brain? vertibulocochlear nerve
what term is given to the maintenance of balance when a person is not moving, or moving in a straight line? static equilibrium
what term is given to the maintenance of balance when a person is moving; especially rotational movements? dynamic equilibrium
the receptors for static equilibrium are called____________ and are located in the___________ maculae; vestibule
otoliths are ____________________and contribute to_________equilibrium calcium carbonate "stones"; static
dynamic equilibrium receptors are called__________ and are located in_________________ christae; semicircular canals
part of the brain that interprets hearing and equilibrium: temporal lobe
located in the superior portionof the nasal cavity are the____________receptors, nonmotile cilia called___________________ olfactory; olfactory receptor cells
sense of smell is carried toward the brain by the__________________and it is interpreted by__________and________________ olfactory nerve; frontal; temporal lobe
the five tastes are: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, umami
taste receptors are known as___________cells and are located on___________ gustatory; papillae
which part of the brain interprets taste stimuli? parietal lobe
which papillae have taste receptors? circumvallate and fungiform
Created by: twilight52
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