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Biomolecules

TermDefinition
Atom The most basic unit of matter.
Element A substance that cannot be broken down.
Molecule A group of two or more atoms that are chemically bonded.
Compound A group of two or more molecules that are chemically bonded.
Atomic number The number that is listed above the element symbol on a periodic table. It represents the number of protons that the element has, and it determines the element's place on the table.
Mass number The protons and the neutrons of an atom added together.
Atomic weight The mass of an atom of the element, measured in atomic mass units (amu). Usually listed below the element's symbol on the periodic table.
Valence electron The amount of electrons on the outside of an atom. Determines the element's reactivity.
Electron The smallest part of an atom. Has a negative charge and is found around the outside of the nucleus.
Proton One of the two parts of the atom that is found inside the nucleus. Has a positive charge.
Neutron One of the two parts of the atom that is found inside the nucleus. Has no charge.
Isotope An imbalanced atom that has a different amount of neutrons than a regular atom of the same element does.
Radioisotope An unstable or radioactive isotope.
Electron configuration How the electrons are arranged in the energy levels around the nucleus of an atom.
Bond A chemical connection that is formed between two or more atoms.
Polar bond A covalent bond where the atoms do not share electrons equally.
Nonpolar bond A covalent bond where the atoms share electrons equally.
Hydrogen bond A weak covalent bond that forms between an atom of hydrogen and the protons of another atom. Keeps DNA linked.
Solvent A substance that can dissolve other substances.
Solution A mixture that is formed from more than one non-reactive compound.
Solute A substance that can be dissolved.
Hydrophobic An inability to mix with or dissolve in water.
Hydrophilic The ability to mix well with or dissolve in water.
Amino acid Organic compounds that are the basic building blocks of proteins.
Nucleotide Compounds that are the basic structural units of nucleic acids.
Peptide bond A covalent bond that forms between two amino acids.
Lipid Compounds which are not soluble in water and are hydrophobic.
Saturated fat A fatty acid that has no double bonds and is solid at room temperature.
Saccharide A soluable, crystalline carbohydrate. Also known as sugar.
Specific heat (water) The amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a substance by 1°C. Water has a very high specific heat.
Created by: Joshua Strain
 

 



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