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Biology Vocabulary

Vocab Flashcards

TermDefinition
Atom A basic unit of matter that contains a dense, central nucleus covered with a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
Element A substance that cannot be broken down into further substances, and is made up of its own type of atom.
Molecule Group of atoms bonded together.
Compound Consists of two or more simple parts or indiviuals in combination.
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass number The sum of protons and neutrons.
Atomic Weight The mass of an atom, which is approximately equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom.
Valence Electron The outermost electrons which determine properties of elements.
Electron Subatomic particle with a negative electric charge.
Proton Subatomic particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge.
Neutron Subatomic particle with no electric charge.
Isotope Atoms that have the same number of protons but different amount of neutrons.
Radioisotope A radioactive isotope.
Electron configuration Arrangement of electrons in energy levels around an atomic nucleus.
Bond An attraction between atoms in a molecule or crystalline structure.
Polar Bond A type of covalent bond between two atoms in which electrons are shared unequally, resulting in a bond in which one atom has a slightly negative charge and the other slightly positive.
Nonpolar Bond A type of covalent bond between two atoms in which electrons are equally shared.
Hydrogen bond A chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom, especially a nitrogen, oxygen , or fluorine atom.
Solvent A liquid used for dissolving other substances.
Solution A liquid mixture in which the minor component is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent).
Solute A minor component of a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
Hydrophobic To repel or fail to mix with water.
Hydrophilic Mixes or dissolves or gets wet by water.
Amino acid A simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl and an amino.
Nucleotide A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA
Peptide bond The primary linkage of all protein structures; the chemical bond between the carboxyl groups and amino groups that unite a peptide.
Lipid Any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.
Saturated fat A type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules without double bonds, considered to be less healthy in the diet than saturated fats.
Saccaride Another term for sugar.
Specific heat(water) A heat required to raise the temperature of water or te substance by a given amount ( usually one ).
Created by: ngarces5941
 

 



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