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biology flashcards

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Atom The basic unit of a chemical element.
Element A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means, and is made up of atoms all with an identical number of protons.
Molecule Two or more atoms bonded together to form a single chemical entity.
Compound A substance that consists of two or more elements in a unique composition.
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass number An integer equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus.
Atomic weight The total mass of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Valence electron Any of the electrons on the outer shell of the nucleus of an atom.
Electron A stable atomic particle that has a negative charge, the flow of electrons through a substance constitutes electricity.
Proton A positively charged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom and has a mass of 1 and a charge of +1.
Neutron An elementary atomic particle that has no charge and a mass that is approximately the same as that of a proton.
Isotope Various forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
Radioisotope Radioactive isotopes of an element.
Electron configuration The distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals
Bond A force of attraction between atoms or ions.
Polar bond A type of covalent bond between two atoms in which electrons are shared unequally.
Non-polar bond A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have the same electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair.
Hydrogen bond The electromagnetic attraction created between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a highly electronegative atom and another nearby electronegative atom.
Solvent A molecule that has the ability to dissolve other molecules, known as solutes.
Solution A homogeneous mixture of solvent and solute molecules.
Solute A substance that can be dissolved by a solvent to create a solution.
Hydrophobic A hydrophilic molecule or portion of a molecule is one whose interactions with water and other polar substances are more thermodynamic-ally favorable than their interactions with oil or other hydrophobic solvents.
Hydrophilic A hydrophilic molecule or portion of a molecule is one whose interactions with water and other polar substances are more thermodynamic-ally favorable than their interactions with oil or other hydrophobic solvents.
Amino acid An organic molecule that is made up of a basic amino group (−NH2), an acidic carboxyl group (−COOH), and an organic R group (or side chain) that is unique to each amino acid.
Nucleotide One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA.
Peptide bond A chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water.
Lipid Organic compounds that are fatty acids or derivatives of fatty acids, which are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Saturated fat A type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Saccharide A monosaccharide sugar or combination of sugars carbohydrate
Specific heat (water) The amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius.
Created by: jlugo1265
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