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Unit One Bio review

Review for Biology Test One

TermDefinition
Atom Smallest functional organization of matter not the smallest because they have smaller parts inside of them which have even smaller parts inside of them
Element Atoms of all the same size and number of protons
Molecule 2 or more ATOMS covalently bonded together
Compound 2 or more atoms or DIFFERENT elements bonded together
Atomic Number the atomic number is equal to the number of electrons in a neutral element
Mass Number The total number of Protons and Neutrons in an atoms nucleus
Atomic Weight sum of the protons and electrons in the most common isotope of the element
Valence Electron Electrons in the outermost energy level of the electrons cloud
Electron has a negative charge and almost no mass so it isn't counted with the mass of the atom it is located in the electron cloud
Proton has a positive charge and the same mass as neutrons located in the nucleus
Neutron has a neutral charge and is located in the nucleus it has the same mass as protons
Isotope 2 or more forms of the same element
Radioisotope radioactive isotopes they can have an unstable combination of protons and neutrons or excess energy in the nucleus
Electron Configuration arrangement of electrons within the atoms
Bond attractions between atoms, ions, or molecules that enables the formation of chemicalcompounds
Polar bond share electrons unequally and create poles which create intermolecular reactions type of covalent bond
Nonpolar Bonds share Electrons very easily and don't create poles type of covalent bond
Hydrogen Bond A weak bond between two molecules resulting between the electrostatic attraction between the proton in one atom and the electronegative atom in the other
Solvent Able to dissolve other substances
Solution a liquid mixture in which the solute is uniformly distributed in the solvent
Solute dissolved in a solvent
Hydrophobic Nonpolar molecules that are rejected from water since they are nonpolar they prefer neutral molecules and nonpolar solvents
Hydrophilic having the tendency to mix with water
Amino Acid monomers that make up proteins
Nucleotide monomers that make up nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA
peptide Bond chemical bonds formed between 2 molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other
Lipid Functions= Long term energy storage, Protection against heat loss, Protection against Physical shock, Protection against Water loss, Chemical Messengers, Major components of membranes nonpolar monomer= fatty acids
Saturated fat no double bonds bad for you
Saccharide another term for sugar
Specific Heat(water) Water stores heat in the summer but still stays cold and then in the winter it releases the heat making the water warmer in the winter months
Protein Provides energy and structure and provides body repairs monomer= amino acids Foods high in protein= Milk, eggs, poultry, meat Amino acids create covalent bonds called polypeptides
Carbohydrate sugars monomers= sugars and starches Provides energy and structural support 1 Carbon, 2 Hydrogen, and 1 Oxygen Inside of Breads, Cereal, and vegetables
polymer large molecules consisting of monomers bonded together
nucleic Acids monomer= nucleotides genetic material DNA & RNA- examples 3 parts: Sugar, Phosphate group, and Nitrogen Base( cytosine, guanine, adenine, Thymine, and uracil)
Monosaccharide carbohydrate 1 sugar molecule
Disaccharide carbohydrate 2 sugar molecules
Polysaccharide carbohydrate many sugars Energy and structural support Energy polysaccharides are stored as starch in plant and Glycogen in animals
DNA hereditary material passed on from parents to offspring
Biomolecules Large molecules that are needed for life
Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract electrons
Adhesion Water molecules stick to other substances
Cohesion Water molecules stick to each other
Created by: ajain6928
 

 



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