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Mr. Wills ML 7.3+4

Mr. Wills ML7.3+4

Term/QuestionDefinition/Answer
Homeostasis ability to maintain a stable environment inside a cell/organism despite changes to the outside environment.
Phospholipids molecule that makes up the cell membrane consisting of a phosphorus head and two lipid tails. Be able to label a drawing.
Lipid bilayer basic make up of all cell membranes. Contains two layers of phospholipids with the polar heads facing into and out of the cell.
Polar a molecule with a partial charge. Hydrophilic. Cannot pass directly through lipid bilayers.
Non-polar molecules with no charge such as lipids. Hydrophobic. The lipid tails of the phospholipids are examples.
What are the four membrane proteins cell surface markers, enzymes, receptor proteins, transport proteins
Cell Surface Markers proteins in the cell membrane that has a carbohydrate chain attached to it. The carbohydrate cells identify what type of cell it is. Also called glycoproteins
Receptor proteins proteins responsible for sensing the environment. When a signal binds to a receptor protein it causes changes within the cell.
Enzymes speed up required chemical reactions in the cell by breaking down or putting together molecules.
Transport proteins help materials(polar, charged, too large) move into and out of the cell.
What are the two types of carrier proteins carrier and channel proteins
What is the role of the cell membrane? to maintain homeostasis by controlling the movement of material into and out of the cell
What substance can pass directly through the lipid bilayer? small non-polar substances ex. O2, CO2, Amino acids, small lipids
Passive transport any movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentration that does not require the use of energy/ATP
Equilibrium when particles have an equal concentration inside and outside of a semi-permeable membrane
Semi-permeable membrane a membrane that allows only certain particles through
Concentration gradient difference in the concentration of molecules over a distance determines how particles move into and out of a cell
Simple diffusion type of passive transport in which particle move from high concentration to low concentration (down hill) with out using a transport protein or energy
Facilitated diffusion movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration (down hill) using a channel or a carrier protein. No energy is used.
Channel protein type of transport protein that allows polar molecules and ions to enter a cell down the conc. gradient
Carrier proteins transport proteins that change shape to move materials into and out of the cell may or may not require energy.
Osmosis the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from high concentration to low
Hypertonic solution more dissolved materials outside the cell, causes cell to shrink as water leaves the cell.
Hypotonic solution less dissolved materials outside the cell, causes cell to swell/burst as water moves into the cell by osmosis
Isotonic solution same amount of solutes inside and outside the cell, cell stays same shape
Active transport type of transport that moves material from areas of low concentration to high using energy/ATP.
Contractile vacuole type of organelle that uses active transport to pump out water in single celled creatures to get rid of excess water entering the cell by osmosis
Membrane pump carrier protein that pumps particle from areas of low conc. to high
Sodium/Potassium pump type of passive transport that pumps sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
Endocytosis process of moving materials into the cell by pinching the larger materials into a vesicle inside the cell.
Exocytosis process of removing wastes and cell product from the cell eliminate a vesicle out of the cell.
Phagocytosis process of cells devouring bacteria or damaged cells for the purpose of recycling their parts.
Lysosomes type of vesicle containing digestive enzymes that break down parts of the cell
Vesicles organelles used for the transportation and storage of cellular wastes and products
What is the difference between passive and active transport? passive transport goes from high conc to low and never requires energy. Active transport particles go from low concentration to high and requires energy.
What are two examples of passive transport? Water through a channel protein. Dye spreading out in water.
What are two examples of active transport? Sodium-Potassium pump. Contractile vacuoles ejecting water from Paramecium. Endo and Exocytosis also are examples.
Signal molecule molecule that binds to a receptor protein that causes changes within the cell
Receptor protein protein in the cell membrane that has a specific shape to receive a specific signal causing the cell to respond
Secondary messenger molecule that is released to cause changes to the cytoplasm and or the nucleus after receiving an outside signal
Signal cell sends message/signal
Target cell receives message/signal
Binding site location on receptor protein that receives a signal
Environmental signal signal from outside an organism that causes changes within. Ex. Light, CO2, Temperature
What are the three type of changes a signal could cause? change in permeability, enzyme activation, second messenger release
homeostasis ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes to the external environment
unicellular an organism in which each cell is independent and can survive with out the help of other cells
multicellular organisms that have specialized cells that help the organism survive. The cells on their own cannot survive.
specialized cells cells that perform a specific function, like muscle cells, nerve cells, etc.
cellular junction structure that holds cells together and or helps the cells to communicate
levels of organization cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism.
solute substance dissolved in solution
solvent substance solute is dissolved in often water
aquaporin a channel protein specific to water
Created by: willsm