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Medical Emergencies

Paramedic Medical Emergencies: GI/Uro/Neph/Immune/Hema/Toxicology

Question/DefinitionTerm/Answer
A chemical in red blood cells that affects hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG)
A substance that liberates hydrogen ions (H+) when in a solution Acid
Immunity that develops over time and results from exposure to an antigen. (aka Specific Immunity) Acquired Immunity
A powder, usually premixed with water, that will absorb (bind) some poisons and help prevent them from being absorbed by the body Activated Charcoal
Acquired immunity that occurs following exposure to an antigen and results in the production of antibodies specific for the antigen; protection against disease developed after birth as a result of a direct exposure to the disease Active Immunity
Movement of a molecule through a cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration; movement requires energy consumption within the cell Active Transport
Sudden onset of inflammation of the stomach and intestines Acute Gastroenteritis
The sudden onset of severely decreased urine output production (aka Acute Renal Failure (ARF)) Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)
A particular syndrome characterized by the sudden death of tubular cells Acute Tubular Necrosis
Compulsive and overwhelming physiological and/or psychological dependence on a drug Addiction
Union of normally separate tissue surfaces by a fibrous band of new tissue Adhesion
Transmitted through the air by droplets or particles Airborne
A substance that liberates hydroxyl ions (OH-) when in a solution; a strong base Alkali
A substance capable of inducing allergy of specific hypersensitivity Allergen
An exaggerated response by the immune system to a foreign substance Allergic Reaction
A hypersensitive state acquired through exposure to a particular allergen Allergy
An unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign protein or other substance Anaphylaxis
An inadequate number of red blood cells or inadequate hemoglobin within the red blood cells Anemia
Marked edema of the skin that usually involves the head, neck, face, and upper airway; a common manifestation of severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis Angioneurotic Edema
A form of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine Ankylosing Spondylitis
Protein that is produced in response to and that attack a disease antigen Antibody
Formation and passage of a concentrated urine, preserving blood volume Antidiuresis
A substance that will neutralize a specific toxin or counteract its effect on the body Antidote
Surface protein on most viruses and bacteria that identifies them as self or nonself; any substance that is capable, under appropriate conditions, of inducing a specific immune response Antigen
No elimination of urine Anuria
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix at the junction of the large and small intestines Appendicitis
A waterlike fluid that surrounds the iris, pupil, and lens of the eye Aqueous Humor
The part of the tubule beyond the descending loop of Henle Ascending Loop of Henle
A condition in which the body makes antibodies against its own tissues Autoimmune Disease
The body’s formation of antibodies against itself Autoimmunity
Cells that attack invaders in humoral immune responses B Lymphocytes
Microscopic single-celled organisms that range in length from 1 to 20 micrometers Bacteria
Capable of killing bacteria Bactericidal
Capable of inhibiting bacterial growth or reproduction Bacteriostatic
A type of white blood cell that participates in allergic responses Basophil
A non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate associated with aging Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
Transmitted by contact with blood or body fluids Bloodborne
Phenomenon in which a decrease in PCO2 acidity causes an increase in the quantity of oxygen that binds with hemoglobin and , Conversely, an increase in PCO2 acidity causes the hemoglobin to give up a greater quantity of oxygen Bohr Effect
Blockage of the hollow space within the intestines; can be catastrophic if not rapidly diagnosed and treated Bowel Obstruction
The hollow, cup-shaped first part of the nephron tubule Bowman’s Capsule
Physical exam finding suggestive of meningitis in which flexion of the neck causes flexion of the hips and knees Brudzinski’s Sign
A condition caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist, with repetitive motion being the primary cause Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
A clouding of the lens of the eye Cataract
Generalized, temporary defense against any invader Cell-Mediated Immunity
Immunity resulting from a direct attack of a foreign substance by specialized cells of the union system Cellular Immunity
An infection of the skin that often involves the associated soft tissues Cellulitis
Earwax; a protective substance secreted by glands within the ear canal Cerumen
An inflammation or infection resulting from blockage of a gland of the eyelid Chalazion
Highly contagious sexually transmitted ulcer Chancroid
The movement of white blood cells in response to chemical signals Chemotaxis
A disease caused by Chikungunya virus and spread by the Aedes species of mosquitoes Chikungunya Virus Disease
A Group of intracellular parasites that cause sexually transmitted diseases Chlamydia
Inflammation of the Gallbladder Cholecystitis
A dialysis procedure that relies on the patient’s peritoneal membrane as the semi permeable membrane. Dialysate is introduced into the abdomen via a closed system that allows the patient to be ambulatory during dialysis. (aka Peritoneal Dialysis) Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
Non acute inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa Chronic Gastroenteritis
Permanently inadequate renal function due to nephron loss (aka Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Pain that persists longer than that typically seen in others who have the same condition Chronic Pain Syndrome (CPS)
The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis Circumcision
Degenerative disease of the liver Cirrhosis
acute pain associated with cramping or spasms in the abdominal organs Colic
the larger structure beyond the distal tubule into which urine drips Collecting Duct
capable of being transmitted to another host Communicable
time when a host can transmit an infectious agent to someone else Communicable Period
an infection occurring in a non-hospitalized patient who is not undergoing regular medical procedures, including the use of instruments such as catheters Community-Acquired Infection
Presence of an agent only on the surface of the host without penetrating it Contamination
the outer tissue of an organ such as the kidney Cortex
a waste product caused by metabolism within muscle cells Creatinine
idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorder associated with the small intestine Crohn’s Disease
viral illness characterized by inspiratory and expiratory stridor and a seal bark-like cough Croup
Ecchymosis in the periumbilical area Cullen’s Sign
A disorder of unknown causes characterized by repeated, sudden episodes of severe nausea , vomiting comma and physical exhaustion Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome (CVS)
infection of the bladder Cystitis
the process of minimizing toxicity by reducing the amount of toxin absorbed into the body Decontamination
a hypersensitivity that develops after the elapse of some time following reexposure of an antigen; Usually less severe than immediate reactions Delayed Hypersensitivity
A disorder found in habitual and excessive users of alcoholic beverages after cessation of drinking for 48 to 72 hours Delirium Tremens
the part of the tubule beyond the proximal tubule Descending Loop of Henle
the solution used in dialysis that is hypo osmolar to many of the wastes and key electrolytes in blood Dialysate
the duration from the onset of signs and symptoms of disease until the resolution of symptoms or death Disease Period
process that destroys certain forms of microorganisms, but not all Disinfection
a type of hematopoietic disorder in which circulating thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to form fibrin clots through circulation; caused by systemic activation of the coagulation cascade (aka Consumption Coagulopathy) Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
the part of the tubule beyond the ascending loop of henle Distal Tubule
formation and passage of a large amount of dilute urine, decreasing blood volume Diuresis
small outpouching's in the mucosal lining of the intestinal tract Diverticula
inflammation of diverticula Diverticulitis
presence of diverticula, with or without associated bleeding Diverticulosis
poisoning from a pharmacological substance in excess of that usually prescribed or that the body can tolerate Drug Overdose
disease of humans and other primates caused by the virus ebola virus and transmitted between people by direct contact Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)
acute infection of the brain, usually caused by a virus Encephalitis
fluid that fills the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear Endolymph
toxic products released when bacteria die and decompose Endotoxin
an extreme failure of kidney function due to nephron loss; (aka ESRF) End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD)
an exotoxin that produces gastrointestinal symptoms and diseases such as food poisoning Enterotoxin
inflammation of an epicondyle (a prominence on the distal part of a long bone to which muscles and ligaments attach) Epicondylitis
a saclike duct adjacent to a testis that stores sperm cells Epididymis
infection an inflammation of the epiglottis Epiglottitis
red blood cell Erythrocyte
The process of producing red blood cells Erythropoiesis
a hormone produced by kidney cells that stimulates maturation of red blood cells Erythropoietin
swollen vein of the esophagus Esophageal Varix
a soluble poisonous substance accreted during the growth of a bacterium Exotoxin
a form of molecular diffusion in which a molecule specific carrier in a cell membrane speeds the molecules movement from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration Facilitated Diffusion
infection of the fascia (a layer of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and similar structures throughout the body) Fasciitis
transmission of organisms picked up from the gastrointestinal tract into the mouth Fecal-Oral Route
the process through which plasmin dismantles a blood clot Fibrinolysis
a condition characterized by widespread pain in the muscles and soft tissues throughout the body (aka Central Sensitivity Syndrome (CSS)) Fibromyalgia
The fluid produced in bowman’s capsule by filtration of blood Filtrate
the part of the back below the ribs and above the hip bones Flanks
nonspecific term often applied to gastroenteritis that occurs suddenly and that is caused by the ingestion of food containing preformed toxins Food Poisoning
plantlike microorganism Fungus
death of body tissue Gangrene
removing an ingested poison by repeatedly filling and emptying the stomach with water or Saline via a gastric tube Gastric Lavage
generalized disorder involving nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal cramping or discomfort, and diarrhea Gastroenteritis
words occurring in the general area caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) Genital Warts
the male organ system that includes reproductive and urinary structures Genitourinary System
A systemic viral disease characterized by a fine pink rash that appears on the face, trunk, and extremities and fades quickly (aka Rubella) German Measles
The removal of water and other elements from blood in the nephron tubule Glomerular Filtration
the volume per day at which blood is filtered through capillaries of the glomerulus Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
a tuft of capillaries from which blood is filtered into a nephron Glomerulus
the body cells inability to take up glucose from the bloodstream Glucose Intolerance
sexually transmitted disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium Gonorrhea
a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs when uric acid accumulates in the joints Gout
method of differentiating types of bacteria according to their reaction to a chemical stain process Gram Stain
Eccymosis in the flank Grey Turner’s Sign
family of viruses that are carried by the deer mouse and transmitted by ticks and other arthropods Hantavirus
bloody vomitus Hematemesis
bright red blood in the stool Hematochezia
the packed cell volume of red blood cells per unit of blood Hematocrit
the study of blood and the blood-forming organs Hematology
the process through which pluripotent stem cells differentiate into various types of blood cells Hematopoiesis
a dialysis procedure relying on vascular access to the blood and on an artificial membrane Hemodialysis
oxygen bearing molecule in the red blood cells Hemoglobin
destruction of red blood cells Hemolysis
a blood disorder in which one of the proteins necessary for blood clotting is missing or defective Hemophilia
small mass of swollen veins in the anus or rectum Hemorrhoid
the combined three mechanisms that work to prevent or control blood loss Hemostasis
injury with inflammation or infection of the liver cells Hepatitis
protrusion of an organ through its protective sheath Hernia
Organism that causes infections characterized by fluid filled vesicles, usually in the oral cavity or on the genitals Herpes Simplex Virus
the notched part of the kidney where the ureter and other structures join kidney tissue Hilum
A product of basophils & mast cells that is the principal chemical mediator of allergic reactions; causes vasodilation, capillary permeability, bronchoconstriction, & contraction of the gut Histamine
A parasite that attaches to the host's intestinal lining Hookworm
Organism responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Specialized, permanent defense against a particular foreign antigen resulting from an attack of an invading substance by antibodies Humoral Immunity
any of an order of highly specialized insects such as bees and wasps Hymenoptera
having a concentration in one substance greater than that of a second solution Hyperosmolar
an unexpected an exaggerated reaction to particular antigen Hypersensitivity
a collection of blood in the anterior Chamber of the eye Hyphema
having a concentration in one substance lower than that of a second solution Hypo-osmolar
a hypersensitivity that develops swiftly following re exposure to an antigen ; Usually more severe than delayed reactions; swiftest an most severe form is anaphylaxis Immediate Hypersensitivity
complex of events within the body that works toward the destruction or inactivation of pathogens, abnormal cells, or foreign molecules Immune Response
the body's mechanism for defending against foreign invaders Immune System
alternative term for antibody Immunoglobulin (Ig)
infection of the skin caused by staphylococci or streptococci Impetigo
Time Between a host’s exposure to an infectious agent and the appearance of symptoms Incubation Period
the individual who first introduces an infectious agent to a population Index Case
immunity achieved through vaccination given to generate an immune response that results in the development of antibodies specific for the injected antigen Induced Active Immunity
area of dead tissue caused by lack of blood Infarction
presence of an agent within the host, without necessarily causing disease Infection
illness caused by infestation of the body by biological organisms Infectious Disease
presence of parasites that do not break the host’s skin Infestation
a nonspecific defense mechanism that wards off damage from microorganisms or trauma Inflammatory Process
disease caused by a group of viruses Influenza
entry of a substance into the body through the gastrointestinal tract Ingestion
entry of a substance into the body through the respiratory tract Inhalation
entry of a substance into the body through a break in the skin Injection
an inflammation within the tissue surrounding the nephrons Interstitial Nephritis
Abscess that forms within the renal parenchyma Intrarenal Abscess
condition that occurs when part of an intestine slips into the part just distal to itself Intussusception
a gastrointestinal system disorder characterized by symptoms that include abdominal pain, cramping, increased gas, altered bowel habits, food intolerance, and bloating Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
the inability to concentrate or dilute urine relative to the osmolarity of blood Isosthenuria
inability to fully extend the knees with hips flexed Kernig’s Sign
an organ that produces urine and forms other functions related to the urinary system Kidney
a region in the anteroinferior part of the nasal septum where four arteries form a network, or vascular plexus, that is a site of most nosebleeds Kiesselbach’s Plexus
time when a host cannot transmit an infectious agent to someone else Latent Period
a cancer of the hematopoietic cells Leukemia
White blood cell Leukocyte
too many white blood cells Leukocytosis
too few white blood cells Leukopenia
the process through which stem cells differentiate into the white blood cells’ immature forms Leukopoiesis
parasitic infestation of the skin of the scalp , trunk, or pubic area Lice
ligament that supports the duodenojejunal junction Ligament of Treitz
Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract distal to the ligament of Treitz Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding
a type of oral bacterial Cellulitis, or inflammation, that involves the floor of the mouth under the tongue Ludwig’s Angina
recurrent inflammatory disorder caused by a tick-borne spirochete Lyme Disease
Overflow circulatory fluid in spaces between tissues Lymph
secondary circulatory system that collects overflow fluid from the tissue spaces and filters it before returning it to their circulatory system Lymphatic System
cell that attacks invader in immune response Lymphocyte
a cancer of the lymphatic system Lymphoma
after neutrophils comma the most common phagocytic white blood cell Macrophage
a larvicidal peptide Major Basic Protein (MBP)
esophageal laceration, usually secondary to vomiting, with resulted bleeding Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
a device for protecting the face Mask
specialized cell of the immune system that contains chemicals that assist in the immune response Mast Cell
common sight of pain from appendicitis , one to two inches above the anterior iliac Crest in a Direct Line with the umbilicus McBurney’s Point
highly contagious, acute viral disease characterized by a reddish rash that appears on the 4th or 5th day of illness Measles
the inner tissue of an organ such as the kidney Medulla
dark, tarry, foul smelling stool indicating the presence of partially digested blood Melena
inflammation of the meninges, usually caused by an infection Meningitis
occlusion or narrowing of one of the mesenteric arteries, causing a reduction in oxygen and nutrients to the portion of the intestine that is normally supplied by the artery, leading , if not treated, to tissue death and infection Mesenteric Ischemia
a disease affecting the smallest blood vessels Microangiopathy
viral respiratory infection caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
acute disease caused by the Epstein Barr virus Mononucleosis
a cancerous disorder of plasma cells Multiple Myeloma
acute viral disease characterized by painful enlargement of the salivary glands Mumps
pain caused when an inflamed Gallbladder is palpated by pressing under the right costal margin Murphy’s Sign
genetically predetermined immunity that is present at birth and has no relation to previous exposure to a particular pathogen. (aka Innate Immunity) Natural Immunity
immunity that begins to develop after birth and is continually enhanced by exposure to new pathogens and antigens throughout life Naturally Acquired Immunity
a life threatening bacterial infection that can rapidly destroy skin, muscles, and surrounding tissues Necrotizing Fasciitis (NF)
the medical specialty dealing with the kidneys Nephrology
a microscopic structure within the kidney that produces urine Nephron
a reduced number of neutrophils Neutropenia
the most common phagocytic white cell Neutrophil
organisms that live inside our bodies without ordinarily causing disease Normal Flora
acquired while in the hospital Nosocomial
an infection acquired in a medical setting Nosocomial Infection
Organism that can grow and reproduce only within a host cell Obligate Intracellular Parasite
decrease urine elimination to 400 to 500 mLs or less per day Oliguria
ordinarily non harmful bacterium that causes disease only under unusual circumstances Opportunistic Pathogen
a membranous structure that separates the anterior aspect of the eye from the posterior aspect of the eye Orbital Septum
Phosphorus-containing organic chemicals Organophosphates
a painful swelling of the anterior tibial tubercle (bump on the upper tibia just below the knee), often involving both legs Osgood-Schlatter Disease
the measure of a substances is concentration in water Osmolarity
the diffusion pattern of water in which molecules move to equalize concentrations on both sides of a membrane Osmosis
greatly increase urination and dehydration that results when high levels of glucose cannot be absorbed into the blood from the kidney tubules and the osmotic pressure of the glucose in the tubules also prevents water reabsorption Osmotic Diuresis
degradation of the joints Osteoarthritis (OA)
an infection of the bone Osteomyelitis
thinning of bone tissue in loss of bone density from mineral loss that occurs overtime Osteoporosis
ulcerative colitis that affects the entire colon Pancolitis
inflammation of the pancreas Pancreatitis
the tip of a pyramid; It juts into the hollow space of the kidney Papilla
Organism that lives in or on another Organism from which it derives nutriment Parasite
acquired immunity that results from administration of antibodies either from the mother to the infant across the placental barrier or through vaccination Passive Immunity
a disease producing agent or invading substance Pathogen
the male organ of copulation Penis
erosion caused by gastric acid Peptic Ulcer
a pocket of infection in the layer of fat surrounding the kidney Perinephric Abscess
Inflammation of the peritoneum, which lines the abdominal cavity Peritonitis
disease characterized by severe, violent coughing Pertussis
process in which white blood cells engulf and destroy an invader Phagocytosis
infection of the pharynx and tonsils Pharyngitis
Material located in the cones of the retina of the eye that undergoes a chemical change when contacted by light, sending impulses to the optic nerve and brain Photopigments
parasite that is 3 to 10 millimeters long and lives in the distal colon Pinworm
thick, pale yellow fluid that makes up the liquid part of the blood Plasma
a cell from which the various types of blood cells can form Pluripotent Stem Cell
acute infection of the lung, including alveolar spaces an interstitial tissue Pneumonia
an excess of red blood cells Polycythemia
pertaining to the flow of blood into the liver Portal
acute renal failure caused by obstruction distal to the kidney (aka Postrenal ARF) Postrenal AKI
purified protein derivative, the substance used in a test for tuberculosis PPD
acute renal failure caused by decreased blood perfusion to the kidney (aka Prerenal ARF) Prerenal AKI
A management plan to minimize further damage to vital tissues Preventive Strategy
a painful, prolonged erection of the penis Priapism
initial, generalized response to an antigen Primary Response
particles of protein, folded in such a way that protease enzymes cannot act on them Prions
ulcerative colitis limited to the rectum Proctitis
a gland that surrounds the male bladder neck and the first portion of the urethra; It produces fluid that mixes with sperm to make semen Prostate Gland
infection and inflammation of the prostate gland Prostatitis
Single-celled parasitic organisms with flexible membranes and the ability to move Protozoan
the part of the tubule beyond Bowman’s Capsule Proximal Tubule
a raised, wedge-shaped growth of the conjunctiva of the eye Pterygium
an infection an inflammation of the kidney Pyelonephritis
the visible tissue structures within the medulla of the kidney Pyramids
viral disorder that affects the nervous system Rabies
the movement of a substance from a nephron tubule back into the blood Reabsorption
the decrease in number of functional nephrons that causes renal failure Reduced Nephron Mass
pain felt in location other than that of its origin Referred Pain
a chronic pain condition characterized by diffuse pain, swelling, and limitation of movement that follows an arm or leg injury Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD)
pertaining to the kidneys Renal
Renal AKI
kidney stones Renal Calculi
artificial replacement of some critical kidney functions Renal Dialysis
the hollow space of the kidney that junctions with a ureter Renal Pelvis
an enzyme produced by kidney cells that plays a key role in controlling arterial blood pressure Renin
injury or inflammation of tissues caused by repeated motions Repetitive-Motion Disorders
any living creature or environment (water, soil, etc) that can harbor an infectious agent Reservoir
a host's ability to fight off infection Resistance
an apparatus worn that cleanses or qualifies the air Respirator
common cause of pneumonia an bronchiolitis in children Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
a collective term for the network of various cells involved in the immune response Reticuloendothelial System (RES)
a chronic disease that leads to inflammation and injury to the joints and the surrounding tissues Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
federal law that outlines the rights and responsibilities of agencies and health care workers when an infectious disease exposure occurs Ryan White Act
skin disease caused by mite infestation and characterized by intense itching Scabies
a muscular SAC outside the abdominal cavity that contains the testes, epididymis, and vas deferens Scrotum
an oily substance accreted onto the eyelids that keeps the lids soft and pliable Sebum
response by the immune system that takes place if the body is exposed to the same antigen again; antibodies specific for the offending antigen are released Secondary Response
The movement of a substance from the blood into a nephron tubule Secretion
male reproductive fluid Semen
initial exposure of a person to an antigen that results in an immune response Sensitization
a life-threatening medical condition caused by a whole-body inflammatory state called systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS); (aka Septicemia) Sepsis
infection of a joint, usually by bacteria but sometimes by viruses or fungi Septic Arthritis
The trapping of red blood cells by an organ such as the spleen Sequestration
creation of antibodies after exposure to a disease Seroconversion
a highly infectious viral respiratory illness that first appeared in southern China in 2002 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
illness most commonly transmitted through sexual contact Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)
an inherited disorder of red blood cell production, so named because the red blood cells become sickle shaped when oxygen levels are low Sickle Cell Disease
the random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration Simple Diffusion
inflammation of the paranasal sinuses Sinusitis
substance released from basophils and mast cells that causes spasm of the bronchiole smooth muscle, resulting in an asthma-like attack and occasionally asphyxia Slow-Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis (SRS-A)
Sharp, localized pain that originates in walls of the body such as skeletal muscles Somatic Pain
male reproductive cell Sperm Cell
process that destroys all microorganisms Sterilization
an infection of the eyelid caused by blockage of the oil glands associated with an eyelash (aka External Hordeolum) Sty
Use of a pharmacological substance for purposes other than medically defined reasons Substance Abuse
entry of a substance into the body directly through the skin or mucous membrane Surface Absorption
bloodborne sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema Pallidum Syphilis
A whole-body inflammatory state Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, and other organs Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
cells that attack invaders in cell-mediated immune responses T Lymphocytes
an inflammation of a tendon Tendonitis
an inflammation of the lining of the sheath (synovium) that surrounds a tendon Tenosynovitis
male sex organs Testes
twisting of a spermatic cord, resulting in blockage of the blood supply to the testicle and surrounding structures within the scrotum Testicular Torsion
acute bacterial infection of the central nervous system Tetanus
the maximum tolerated dose divided by the minimum curatives dose of a drug; the range between curatives and toxic dosages (aka Therapeutic Window) Therapeutic Index
blood platelets Thrombocyte
an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets Thrombocytopenia
an abnormal increase in the number of platelets Thrombocytosis
the need to progressively increase the dose of a drug to reproduce the effect originally achieved by smaller doses Tolerance
study of the detection, chemistry, pharmacological actions, and antidotes of toxic substances Toxicology
a toxic syndrome; a group of typical signs and symptoms consistently associated with exposure to a particular type of toxin Toxidrome
any poisonous chemicals accreted by bacteria or released following destruction of the bacteria; any chemical (drug, poison, or other) that causes adverse effects on an Organism that is exposed to it Toxin
disease resulting from an infestation of Trichinella Spiralis Trichinosis
sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas Vaginalis Trichomoniasis
disease caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that primarily effects the respiratory system Tuberculosis (TB)
An inflammatory bowel disorder of unknown origin. If spread through the colon, it is called pancolitis; If confined to the rectum, it is called proctitis Ulcerative Colitis
bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Trietz Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
waste derived from ammonia produced through protein metabolism Urea
the syndrome of signs and symptoms associated with chronic renal failure Uremia
a duct that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder Ureter
the duct that carries urine from the bladder out of the body; in men, it also carries reproductive fluid (semen) to the outside of the body Urethra
Infection and inflammation of the urethra Urethritis
the muscular organ that stores urine before its elimination from body Urinary Bladder
a condition in which the bladder empties incompletely during urination Urinary Stasis
the group of organs that produce urine, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance for the body Urinary System
an infection, usually bacterial, at any site in the urinary tract Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
the fluid made by the kidney and eliminated from the body Urine
the surgical specialty dealing with the urinary/genitourinary system Urology
the raised areas, or wheals, that occur on the skin, associated with vasodilation due to histamine release (aka Hives) Urticaria
viral disease characterized by a rash of fluid filled vesicles that rupture, forming small ulcers that eventually scab (aka Chickenpox) Varicella
the duct that carries sperm cells from the epididymis to the urethra Vas Deferens
an Organism’s strength or ability to infect or overcome the body's defenses Virulence
disease causing Organism that can be seen only with an electron microscope Virus
doll, poorly localized pain that originates in the walls of hollow organs such as the ureter or bladder Visceral Pain
clear, Jelly like fluid that fills the vitreous cavity of the eye Vitreous Humor
twisting of the intestine on itself Volvulus
condition in which the vWF component of factor VIII is deficient Von Willebrand’s Disease
administration of polyethylene glycol continuously at 1-2L/hr through a nasogastric tube until the effluent is clear or objects are recovered Whole Bowel Irrigation
Time between exposure to a disease and seroconversion Window Phase
the patient's body reacts severely when deprived of the abused substance Withdrawal
a disease caused by the zika virus and spread by the Aedes species of mosquitoes Zika Virus Disease (ZVD)
condition that causes the stomach to secrete excessive amounts of hydrochloric acid and pepsin Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
What is the hallmark finding for a patient with an acute abdominal emergency? A. Pain B. Fever C. Nausea D. Vomiting A. Pain
What type of pain is characterized as sharp and travels along definite routes to the spinal column? A. Tearing B. Somatic C. Referred D. Visceral B. Somatic
How many liters of fluid can the abdomen hold before any noticeable change in abdominal girth occurs? A. 4-6 pints B. 6-10 pints C. 4-6 liters D. 6-10 liters C. 4-6 liters
Persistent abdominal pain lasting longer than ___ hours is classified as a surgical emergency and always requires transport. A. 2 B. 4 C. 5 D. 6 D. 6
What is the bolus amount of an isotonic crystalloid used when treating hemorrhagic hypovolemia from a GI bleed? A. 10mL/kg B. 20mL/kg C. 600-1000mL D. 800-1000mL B. 20mL/kg
What is the most common cause of lower GI hemorrhages? A. Benign polyps B. Crohn's disease C. Diverticulosis D. Ulcerative colitis C. Diverticulosis
What is the most common surgical emergency the paramedic will encounter in the field, mostly in older children and young adults? A. Gastritis B. Appendicitis C. Cholecystitis D. Diverticulitis B. Appendicitis
An inflamed gallbladder usually causes an acute attack of pain in which abdominal quadrant? A. Upper left B. Lower left C. Upper right D. Lower right C. Upper right
You are treating a patient with a positive Murphy's sign, nausea, and point tenderness. If you desire to administer an analgesic, you would use ___. A. Diazepam B. Fentanyl C. Nitroglycerin D. Uses none of these as analgesics are not warranted B. Fentanyl
Which type of hepatitis is a waterborne infection that has caused epidemics in Africa, Mexico, and other third-world nations? A. Hepatitis A B. Hepatitis C C. Hepatitis D D. Hepatitis E D. Hepatitis E
Backup of food from the small intestine to the stomach is prevented by the ___. A. Pyloric sphincter B. Internal anal sphincter C. Ileocecal valve D. Lower esophageal sphincter A. Pyloric Sphincter
All of the following are accessory organs of digestion except the __. A. Liver B. Salivary Glands C. Pancreas D. Stomach D. Stomach
Mechanical digestion includes all of the following except: A. Chewing B. Emulsification of fat by bile salts C. Conversion of starch to maltose D. Contractions of the stomach C. Conversion of starch to maltose
The hard chewing surface of a tooth is formed by ___ A. Enamel B. Gingiva C. Dentin D. Bone A. Enamel
The only voluntary aspect of swallowing is ___ A. Peristalsis of the esophagus B. Elevation of the tongue C. Elevation of the soft palate D. Contraction of the Pharynx B. Elevation of the tongue
In the gastric mucosa, the parietal cells secrete ____ A. Complete gastric juice B. Pepsinogen C. Hydrochloric acid D. Pepsin C. Hydrochloric Acid
The liver synthesizes all of these except: A. Fibrinogen B. Albumin C. Hemoglobin D. Lipoproteins C. Hemoglobin
Bile is stored by the ___ A, Hepatic duct B. Liver cells C. Common bile duct D. Gallbladder D. Gallbladder
Bile and pancreatic juices are carried to the duodenum by the _ A. Cystic duct B. Pancreatic duct C. Hepatic duct D. Common bile duct D. Common bile duct
Bicarbonate pancreatic juice is important to neutralize hydrochloric acid that enters the ___ A. Pancreas B. Duodenum C. Esophagus D. Stomach B. Duodenum
The capillary networks and lacteals in the villi of the small intestine are important for ___ A. Absorption of nutrients B. Mechanical digestion C. Increasing surface area D. Chemical digestion A. Absorption of nutrients
The functions of the large intestines includes all of these except _ A. Elimination of undigested material B. Absorption of vitamins and minerals C. Absorption of water D. Digestion of starch D. Digestion of starch
The liver is able to detoxify potentially harmful substances by means of the synthesis of specific __ A. Lipoproteins B. Plasma proteins C. Enzymes D. Steroids C. Enzymes
Contraction of the gallbladder is stimulated by __ A. Cholecystokinin B. Epinephrine C. Secretin D. Gastrin A. Cholecystokinin
The cells of the liver that phagocytize pathogens are ___ A. Kupffer cells B. Neither A nor B is correct C. Macrophages D. Both A and B are correct D. Both A and B are correct
At the junction of the esophagus and the stomach is a circular smooth muscle called the ___. Contraction of this sphincter prevents the backup of ___ into the ___. Lower esophageal sphincter; stomach contents; esophagus
Mrs. L is 50 years old and has been feeling pain in the upper right abdominal quadrant after eating. You suspect that Mrs. L has stones in which accessory organ of digestion? Gallbladder
If gallstones are producing frequent and severe pain, the most effective procedure is ___. Cholecystectomy
Mary is a 67 year old female and has been diagnosed with diverticulitis. Diverticula are small outpouchings of the weakened wall of the colon that may become inflamed if ___ become trapped within them. Bacteria
A 44YOM has been diagnosed with hepatitis A. He feels very fatigued, has no appetite, and the white of his eyes appear yellow. This color is caused by excess___ in the blood, which the patient's damaged ___ cannot excrete rapidly. Bilirubin; liver
All of the following are considered part of the lower gastrointestinal tract EXCEPT the: A. Jejunum B. Ileum C. Duodenum D. Large Intestine C. Duodenum
Your patient, who has a history of cholecystitis, is experiencing pain in her right shoulder. She is most likely experiencing ___ pain. Referred
Increased hepatic resistance to blood flow, as happens in cirrhosis, results in: A. Hepatic arterial HTN & obstruction of common bile duct B. Portal vein HTN & esophageal varices C.Portal artery HTN & ascites D.Hepatic vein HTN & hepatic vein aneurysm B. Portal vein HTN & esophageal varices
Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz is considered to be in the: A. Colon B. Small Intestine C. Lower GI Tract D. Upper GI Tract D. Upper GI Tract
In glomerular filtration, BP forces plasma, dissolved substances, & small proteins out of the glomerulus & into ___. Bowman's Capsule
Water is reabsorbed from the filtrate back into the blood by __. A. Endocytosis B. Facilitated Diffusion C. Osmosis D. Active Transport C. Osmosis
The renal vein takes blood from the kidney to the __. Inferior vena cava
The glomerular filtration rate will (increase or decrease) if blood flow through the kidneys decreases? Decrease
The cells that secrete renin are called ____ cells, which are located in the wall of the ____ arteriole. Juxtaglomerular, afferent
If blood flow through the kidneys decreases, then the GFR will (increase or decrease)? Decrease
To help maintain the normal pH of the blood, ___ ions may be secreted into the renal filtrate. A. Ammonium B. Sodium C. Chloride D. Hydrogen D. Hydrogen
The glomerular filtration rate is the amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidney in ___. 1 minute
In tubular reabsorption, glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by the process of ___. A. Active Transport B. Pinocytosis C. Osmosis D. Passive Transport A. Active Transport
The muscular digestive tube in which food passes through the body from mouth to anus; includes the esophagus, pharynx, stomach, and intestines Alimentary Canal
Accessory digestive organs lie externally , but are connected to, the alimentary canal via ___. Ducts
the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wave-like movements that push the contents of the canal forward Peristalsis
the digestive process in which food moves through the GI tract; includes swallowing and peristalsis Propulsion
a form of mechanical digestion that involves contractions of the circular muscles in the digestive tract to mix food with digestive juices and increase nutrient absorption by moving food over the intestinal wall Segmentation
the digestive process in which food is is physically prepared for chemical digestion; includes chewing, churning of food in the stomach, and segmentation Mechanical Digestion
the digestive process that involves secretions of digestive enzymes throughout the digestive tract that break down food and other nutrients into their chemical building blocks for easier use Chemical Digestion
the digestive process that functions to transport digested end products from the lumen of the alimentary canal and into the blood and lymphatic capillaries Absorption
the digestive process that involves the elimination of indigestible substances from the body as feces Defecation
In reference to the abdominal Regions, all of the following are part of the Superior 3 Regions EXCEPT: A. Left Hypochondriac Region B. Epigastric Region C. Umbilical Region D. Right Hypochondriac Region C. Umbilical Region
In reference to the abdominal Regions, all of the following are part of the Middle 3 Regions EXCEPT: A. Umbilical Region B. Epigastric Region C. Left Lumbar Region D. Right Lumbar Region B. Epigastric Region
In reference to the abdominal Regions, all of the following are part of the Inferior 3 Regions EXCEPT: A. Epigastric Region B. Left Iliac (Inguinal) Region C. Right Iliac (Inguinal) Region D. Hypogastric (Pubic) Region A. Epigastric Region
The inner peritoneum wrapped around the internal organs that are located inside the intraperitoneal cavity Visceral
The outer peritoneum attached to the abdominal wall and pelvic walls Parietal
a sheet of 2 serous membranes that are fused back to back and functions to hold the digestive organs in place, stores fat, and provides a route by which circulatory vessels and nerves reach the organs in the peritoneal cavity Mesenteries
to chew Masticate
The 2 leading causes of fatal anaphylactic reactions are injected penicillin and ___. A. Inhaled Substances B. Hymenoptera Stings C. Ingested Penicillin D. Eating Peanuts B. Hymenoptera Stings
Medical term for itching Pruritus
The appropriate dose of epinephrine for a patient experiencing an allergic reaction with dyspnea and wheezing is: A. 0.3 mg 1:1,000 IM B. 0.75 mg 1:10,000 IM C. 0.15 mg 1:10,000 IM D. 1 mg 1:1,000 IV/IO A. 0.3 mg 1:1,000 IM
The signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis usually begin within __ to __ seconds 30 - 60
Diphenhydramine acts on ___ receptors Histamine
During an allergic reaction the body releases histamine in response to an antigen in order to (increase or decrease) dilation of the capillaries? Increase
The release of histamine in the body from an allergic reaction promotes vasodilation and an (increase or decrease) in vascular permeability? Increase
The surface of the tooth Enamel
The bone-like structure that underlies the enamel cap and forms the bulk of the tooth Dentin
Cells of the liver that produce bile, synthesize plasma proteins, store excess carbs as glycogen, & detoxify & degrade body wastes, hormones, & drugs Hepatocytes
Cells of the liver that destroy bacteria, foreign particles, and worn-out red blood cells Kupffer Cells
Vessel of liver circulation that carries deoxygenated blood to the inferior vena cava Hepatic Vein
Vessel of liver circulation that carries oxygenated blood to the liver Hepatic Artery
Vessel of liver circulation that carries nutrient-rich blood from the stomach and intestines Hepatic Portal Vein
The liver plays a major role in manufacturing many of the substances required for ___ Blood Clotting
Structures of liver circulation that carries bile from the liver to the duodenum where it is emptied Hepatic Ducts
All of the following are functions of the Urinary System EXCEPT: A. Maintain water balance in the body B. Maintain osmolarity of fluids C. Regulation of extracellular fluid ions D. Maintain proper plasma volume E. All of the above E. All of the above
Anemia that is caused by a deficiency in vitamin B12 or a lack of intrinsic factor Pernicious Anemia
Anemia that is caused by a suppression of the red bone marrow with decreased production of RBC's, WBC's, and platelets Aplastic Anemia
Anemia that is caused by the destruction of red blood cells before the end of their normal life span Hemolytic Anemia
Anemia that is caused by a genetic disorder in which the hemoglobin are formed in crescent shapes Sickle-Cell Anemia
Anemia that is caused by a lack of dietary iron Iron-Deficiency Anemia
a hormone secreted by the thymus to stimulate T cell production in the peripheral lymphoid tissue Thymosin
Created by: sarah.thomas32
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