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Name 4 major types of tissues Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue
Some common characteristics of epithelia are Cellularity, Polarity
Cellularity tightly packed cells with minimal extracellular matrix between cells
Polarity having a Apical surface either exposed externally or internally
Apical surface The outward facing side of the epithelium tissue, either external or in lumen
Lateral Surface surface of an epithelial cell that faces the adjacent cells on either side: may contain tight junctions,adherens,desmosomes or gap junctions
Basal surface Where the epithelium is attached to the basement membrane
Simple Epithelium Single layer of cells that function in ; diffusion ,osmosis.filtration.secretion or absorption; All epithelium cells are in direct contact with the basement membrane
Basement Membrane Made up of 3 molecular layers called ; Lamina Lucida, Lamina Densa, Reticular Lumina
Avascularity Having few or no blood vessels ; such as the epithelial tissues
Having no blood vessels, how does the epithelium receive nutrients All nutrients come from the apical surface or diffused through the Basal surface from blood vessels in the connective tissue
Stratified Epithelium Having multiple layers of cells, best suited for protective functions
Apical cell shape of Squamous Flat and thin somewhat irregular in shape
Apical cell shape of Cuboidal Square or polyhendral
Apical cell shape of Columnar rectangular or column
4 functions of Epithelium tissue Physical protection, selective permeability, secretions,sensation
Pseudostratified Epithelium Appear to be stratified because of nuclei;all of these epithelial cells are directly attached to the basement membrane so they belong to the simple epithelium; some cells do mot reach their apical surface
Transitional cell shape Change shape from polyhedral to flattened , depending on the stretching of the epithelium; places like the bladder.
Simple Squamous Epithelium Single layer of flattened cells, thinnest barrier to allow rapid movement of molecules and ions to cross, Rapid diffusion , filtration and secretion; places like lungs and blood vessels
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Single layer of square shaped cells,round nucleus in center of cell,allows for absorption and secretion. used to form glands
Simple Columnar Epithelium Single layer of rectangular cells, nucleus is oval and located in the Basal region, allows for absorption and secretion, ciliated and non ciliated
Non ciliated simple columnar epithelium Contain Microvilli and Goblet cells,they line the digestive track from the stomach to the anal canal
Ciliated simple columnar epithelium Has cilia that projects from the apical surface, Goblet cells are interspersed throughout this Epithelium, found in the large Bronchioles in the lungs
Psuedostratified Columnar Epithelium All cells in direct contact with the basement membrane , not all cells reach their apical surface, Columnar cells reach the surface while the shorter cells that do not are called Stem Cells,
Psuedostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Has cilia, has Goblet cells that secrets Mucin, when hydrated turns into Mucas that traps foreign particles and move them along
Straified Squamous Epithelium Multiple cell layers , only the deepest layer of cells are in direct contact with the basement membrane, Cells in the Basal levels are Cuboidal in shape while the Apical cells are flattened and squamous shaped,
Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium Superficial layer of cells are dead, have no nucleus or organelles, filled with the protein Keratin, found at epidermis of skin
Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium Lacks keratin, live cells, Nuclei is visible throughout the tissue, kept moist through secretions such as salive and muchas found in parts of the oral cavity, esophagus, external female genitalia, and vagina.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Multiple layers of cells, superficial cells cuboidal in shape , forms tubes and ducts, for protection and secretion, forms wall of ducts in most exocrine glands
Stratified Columnar Epithelium Multiple layers of cells, relatively rare , Apical surface are columnar in shape , protects and secretes.can be found in sweat glands, mammary glands, circumanal glands, and salivary glands.
Transitional Epithelium Limited to the urinary tract , in relaxed state basal cells are cuboidal and the Apical cells are large and round ,In the distended state the Apical cells fatten and become almost Squamous in shape, bladder
Glands To secrete substance to be used in the body or to remove substances form the body.
Endocrine Glands Do not have ducts, secrete hormones into the blood
Exocrine Glands In the underlying connective tissue , Have ducts that go to the surface of the epithelium for the discharge of secretions to the surface
Unicellular Exocrine Glands One celled, usually do not contain ducts, located close to the surface of the epithelium, most common is Goblet cell,
Multicellular Exocrine Gland Multiple cells that work together to produce secretion, have Acini to produce secretion, small ducts that merge into large duct
Single Glands Have single unbranched duct
Compound Glands Have branched ducts
Gland with a secretory portion and the duct have the same diameter Tubular
Gland with a secretory portion is in the form of a sac Acinar
Gland with a secretory portion has both tubules and Acini Tubuloacinar
5 Simple Glands in anatomic form simple tubular,simple branched tubular, simple coiled tubular,simple branched acinar
3 Compound Glands in anatomic form Compound tubular, compound acinar, compound tubuloacinar
3 Exocrine Glands by secretion form Merocrine,Apocrine,Holocrine Glands
Exocrine Gland that packages it's secretion into secretion vesicles and release the secretion by exocytosis Merocrine Gland
Exocrine Gland that has secretion from the pinching off of the apical portion and releasing cytoplasmic content, cells repair themselves to repeat activity Apocrine Gland
Exocrine Gland that accumulates a product then the entire cell disintegrates, cell fragments and product make up secretion Holocrine Gland
Hypertrophy Increase in the size of the cells without an increase in the numbers of cells, ie,. lifting weights
Hyperplasia Increase in the number of cells in a tissue. ie. getting a callus on your hand
Atrophy The shrinkage of tissue by the decrease cell size or numbers, ie. not using a muscle
Metaplasia Where stressors are placed on the body, tissues change into another type of tissue
Dysplasia Abnormal tissue development, has potential to turn into cancer, may be from exposer to a virus
Neoplasia Tumors, tissue growth proceeds out of control, may be benign or malignat can also metastasize
Necrosis The death of soft tissue due to the lack of blood flow,ie. Gangrene
Edema Localized swelling
Ectoderm Located on dorsal of Embryo, Forms many external structures like the skin, surface of the eye,also all nervous tissue
Mesoderm Middle germ layer, Forms all muscle tissue, spleen,ovaries, kidneys, Becomes Mesenchyme
Endoderm Innermost germ layer ,Forms epithelium and organs like the liver,pancreas,thymus, and gallbladder
Autograft Transplant tissue from one part of the body to another part of the same body, small rejection
Syngenetic graft Isograft Tissue transplant between identical twins
Allograft Transplant tissue from one person to a genetically different person, immunosuppresent drugs required
Xenograft, Heterograft Transplant of tissue from animal to human, prone to rejection
Endothelium Simple squamous epithelium that lines the blood and lymphatic vessels
Produce fibers and ground substance Fibroblast
Postion of the Parietal Membrane outside next to cavity
Postion of the Visceral Membrane Inside next to organ
Serous fluid postion and function Postioned between the visceral and parietal membranes to reduce friction between organs rubbing angaist one another
4 membranes Cutaneous, Mucous, Serous, Synovial
Membrane at the joints that produce a fluid to lubricate and is a connective tissue Synovial Membrane
Membrane that is a 2 layer sac that has fluid between layers , is an epithelium Serous Membrane
Membrane that lives the cavities like the mouth and intestines , produces a substance to lubricate and protect underlying tissues frome pathogens, epithelium Musous Membrane
Membrane called the skin or Integument Cutaneous Membrane
3 Cartilages Hyaline, Fibro, Elastic cartilages
Cartilage with perichondriums Hyaline and Elastic cartilages
Cartilage without perichodriums Fibrocartilage
In dense regular connective tissue that forms tendons and ligaments what kind of cells are used Fibroblasts cells
What type of cells form adipose connective tissue Adipocyte cells
What type of cells form cartilage Chondrocyte cells
The 4 Resident cells are Fibroblast , Adipocytes. Mesenchymal, Fixed Macrophages
The 3 Protein fibers Collagen, Reticular, Elastic Fibers
Definition of Ground Substance Non-cellular material that the connective tissue cells and protein fibers reside ;can be viscous ,semisolid , or solid; It actually consists of large molecules called glycosoaminoglycans (GAGs) which link together to form even larger molecules called prot
Function of Wandering cells Immune
Functions of Resident cells Structure, repair ,maintain and support
2 Embryonic connective tissues Mesenchyme and Mucous connective tissues
Loose connective tissue characteristics Few fibers and more ground substance
Dense connective tissue characteristics More fibers and less ground substance
3 loose connective tissues Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
3 Dense connective tissues Dense regular , Dense Irregular, Elastic
3 Cartilages Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
2 Bone Compact and Spongy
What tissue do you find Contractile Proteins in Skeletal and Cardiac muscle tissue , myosin
4 Body Membranes Mucous, Serous, Cutaneous, and Synovial
Body Membranes are formed from what 2 tissues Epithelial and Connective tissues
Ectoderm Dorsal and External surface of Embryo,Epidermis of skin, nervous tissue
Mesoderm MIddle Primary Germ Layer, Dermis of skin , Muscle tissue, Connective tissue
Endoderm Innermost Germ Layer, Organs , Ducts , tracks and tubes
Where do you find Hyaline cartilage Fetal skeleton,nose, End of bone at joints, and Respiratory passages. has flex support
Where do you find Fibroblast cartilage Good shock absorber . interverbral discs , hip bones, knee, has lots of collagen fibers
Where do you find Elastic cartilage Flexible , ear and Larynx
Cartilages with perichodriums Hyaline and Elastic cartilages
Elastic fibers can be found where Vocal chords, Respiratory air passage ways, skin and lungs
Collagen fibers can be found where Ligaments and Tendons
Reticular fibers can be found where Spleen and Liver, surround small blood vessels and in the basement membranes
Where would you find Dense regular connective tissue Tendons , ligaments in the Dermis. has Poor Blood supply
Where would you find Dense irregular connective tissue Dermis of the skin and around skeletal muscles
Where would you find Elastic connective tissue The walls of Large arteries Airways, part of the Heart
Simple Squamous Epithelium is found where? Serous Membrane for heart and lung , also Lymphatic vessels
Where can you find the Mucous Membrane Digestive , Respiratory , Urinary and Reproductive tracts, They open up to external surfaces
Out of the 4 membranes ; serous , mucous , cutaneous , and synovial, which one is different than a Epithelial Membrane Synovial , made up entirely of connective tissue
What actions does the Mucous Membrane perform Absorption , Protection and Secretion
Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium can be found where? Epidermis
What actions does the Simple Squamous perform Diffusion , Filtration, Osmosis, and Secretion
What actions does the Simple Cuboidal perform Secretion and Absorption
Where can you find the Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Lines the kidney tubules , Thyroid follicles, covers ovaries and lines Ducts of some glands , Eye surface
What actions does the Simple Columnar perform Secretion and Absorption
Where can you find the Simple Columnar Epithelium Lines Uterus, stomach and intestine
Where can you find the Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Lines the Respiratory passageways
Where can you find the Stratified Squamous Epithelium Lines oral cavity, vagina anal canal
Where can you find the Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Lines the Mammary, Sweat and Salivary glands , Pancreas
Where can you find the Stratified Columnar Epithelium Lines part of the Urethra, and ducts of exocrine glands
Where can you find the Transitional Epithelium Lines the Urinary bladder, Ureters, and part of the Urethra
Types of Grandular Epithelium Exocrine Gland and Endocrine Gland
How and What do Merocrine Glands Secrete By Exocytosis and product is Salivary and Sweat
How do Apocrine Glands Secrete Pinches off small part of cells , Mammary Gland
How do Holocrine Glands Secrete Releases entire cell of product. Sebaceous Glands or Oil
Characteristics of Glycosaminoglycans Negatively charged and are attracted to water, used as a lubricate, completely composed of carbohydrate, chondroitin and heparin sulfates, hyaluronic acid
Characteristics of Proteoglycans Attached to protein and 90% carbohydrate
Characteristics of Adherent Glycoproteins Binds fibers and cells to Ground substance
Neurosoma The body of the Neuron
Serous Gland Secretes thin aqueous fluid , Sweat gland
Mucous Gland Secretes Mucous
Osteoblasts Form bones, secretes Hydroxyapatite
Osteocytes Maintain bone
Osteoclasts Break down bone
Function of the Lumina Propria It provides support and nutrition to the epithelium, as well as the means to bind to the underlying tissue.
Created by: scones and joe
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