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BHP II exam 2

Rhinophyma - form of rosacea - hypertrophy of sebaceous glands
nasopharyngeal angiofibroma - benign tumor - most common neoplasm of nasopharynx
nasopharyngeal carcinoma - malignant tumor - epstein-barr virus
waldeyer's ring - palatine tonsils - nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) - lingual tonsils - tubal tonsils
Meniere's Disease - disease of inner ear - cochlear distention - unilateral --> bilateral hearing loss
Warty Papilloma - seen often in children - due to HPV - multiple nodules on vocal cords
achalasia - increased width of esophogus (except distal) - predisposed to esophogeal carcinoma
Barrett's Esophous - predisposes to adenocarcinoma (3-10%) - metaplasia to goblet cells and tall columnar
adenocarcinoma of esophogus - most frequently seen in lower 1/3 of esophous
chronic gastritis - autoimmune - antibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor - achlorohydria and pernicious anemia - intestinal metaplasia- goblet cells and mucous patterns - predisposes to gastric carcinomas (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma)
adenocarcinoma of stomach - most important cancer of the stomach - causes "linitis plastica" = leather bottle stomach
pseudomembranous colitis - clodistridium difficil over growth - due to use of broad spectrum antibiotics - also presiposed by GI surgery, ischemia and burns
Celiac's Disease - most common malabsorption syndrome in Western World - causes bulky, floating stools due to fat in still not being absorbed in GI - atrophy of villi in small intestine - due to gluten hypersensitivity.
Crohn's Disease - chronic inflammatory bowel disease - dangerous complication: stricture formation --> emergency room - cobblestone appearance, fissured ulcers, node enlargement, skip lesions, non-caseating granulomatous inflammation
Large Intestine tumors - most common place to get tumor - adenomata, carcinoma and hyperplastic polyps
adenocarcinoma of LI - most often found in elderly - starts as adenoma, then becomes carcinoma - genetic susceptibility
Gardner's Syndrome - increase chance of cancer - adenomata in GI - osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Peutz-Jegher Syndrome - polyps in colon (risk of cancer) - pigmentation of skin (perioral macules)
Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer - 90% of gene carriers get this cancer - no signs of polyps prior to cancer onset
Colorectal Carcinoma (right vs. left) right (ascending)- fluid = no obstructoin left (descending)- solid mass = obstruction
Left sided colorectal carcinoma - annular type - napkin ring - causes stenosis - ulcerative bleeding, rolled margins, invasion into wall
Dukes Staging A) not extended B) extended C) bowel involvement D) distant metastisis
Meckel's Diverticulum - persistent part of yoke sac
Jaundice - caused by unconjugated bilirubin (bound to albumin) can't be excreted in urine, builds up in liver
councilman bodies - single dead cell- dead shrunken eosinophilic hepatocyte following apoptosis
massive necrosis - due to acetomenophen ingestion
hepatic vein thrombosis - due to hepatic vein thromis - aka Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Viral Hepatitis Hep A- self- limiting Hep B- predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma
Toxic Liver Disease - most commonly caused by alcohol (aldehydes!)
Reye's Syndrome - fatty chnage in liver and edematous encephalopathy following use of aspirin (in normal, non-toxic doses). - occurs 3-5 days later - kids - NO jaundice because this is an acute reaction
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (hepatoma) - malignant tumor of the liver - associated with Hep B virus infection
Gallstones - most common disease affecting biliary tree - primary constituent is cholesterol; second is bile pigments - predisposes to carcinoma - 80% of gallstones are cholesterol stones
Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder - most common tumor of gallbladder
obstructive jaundice - due to Gallstones & Pancreatic Cancer
Diseases of Pancreas - 80% are due to exocrine pancreas
Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis - reversible - after large meal or alcohol consumption - 50% w/ gallstones
Cystic Fibrosis - disorder of exocrine glands - defect of Chloride Channels - increase Na an Cl in sweat & decrease in H20 and bicarb
Carcinoma of Pancreas - jaundice early sign - courvoisier's sign - trousseau's sign
Courvoisier's sign - jaundice with painless distended englarded gallbladder and no scarring
Trousseau's sign migratory thrombophlebitis (10% of pts)
Diabetes - glucose >200 - fasting glucose > 126 - increased risk of cardiovascular disease
ketoacidosis - in type 1 DM - increased catabolism of fat --> ketone bodies - decreased leukocyte function - Kimmelstiel-Wilson Syndrome
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Syndrome - associated with ketoacidosis - intercappilary nodular glomerulosclerosis w/ HTN and edema --> proteinurea (protein in the pee)
Insulinoma - beta cell tumor - most common - 90% are benign - ages 30-60 - Whipple Triad
Whipple Triad 1. Hypterinsulin & hypoglycemia 2. Altered sensorium (confusion) 3. Increased by fasting or exercize and alleviated by eating
Cirrhosis - leading cause of portal hypertension - decrease levels of Vit K clotting factors
Created by: peanut3399