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Ch 4 and 6

Chaffey College Medical Terminology Course

What are the four main functions of the skin? 1. protection 2. regulation 3. sensation 4. secretion
What do blood vessels in the skin do to lower body temperature? Dilate, bringing more blood to the surface for cooling by radiation
What do blood vessels in the skin do to raise body temperature? Constrict, allowing more heat- carrying blood to circulate to the muscles and vital organs
The sensory receptors for: Pain, touch, heat, cold and pressure
How is sensory receptors triggered? Once the information reached the brain
What the difference between sweat glands and sebaceous glands? secrete perspiration or sweat vs secrete oil for lubrication
What layer is the subcutaneous layer and what does it contain? It is the lowest layer that contains arteries, veins, sweat glands and nerves
What color are arteries, veins and nerves? Arteries are blue veins are red and nerves are yellow
How do sweat glands appear? As a small tangle
Where is the dermis layer and what does it contain? The dermis layer sits above the subcutaneous layer and it contains sebaceous glans, arrector pill muscles and hair follicles
What layer is the epidermis and what does it contain? The epidermis is the upper layer of the skin and it contains sensory receptors and hair which grows through this layer
The epidermis is divided into the five strata what are the five? Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum and stratum corneum
The dermis is composed of two types of tissues Connective and subcutaneous tissue
What does the connective tissue of the dermis contain? lymphatics, nerves , nerve endings, blood vessels, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, elastic fibers and hair follicles
The dermis contains two layers Papillary layer (upper) and the reticular layer (lower)
Arranged into parallel rows of microscopic structures called papillae that produce ridges that are one's footprints and fingerprints Papillary layer
Composed of what fibrous tissue that supports the blood vessels Reticular layer
A thin, threadlike structure formed by a group of cells that develop within a hair follicle or socket Hair
The visible portion of the hair is known as the Shaft
The embedded portion of the hair which is within the follicle is know as the Root
What attaches to the side of each hair follicle Arrector pili
Located on the tips od fingers and toes and are a thick layer of densely packed keratinocytes Nails
Deep layers of the epidermis is called The nail bed
These are horny cell structures of the epidermis and are composed of hard keratin Fingernails and toenails
The visible dense mass of dead keratinized cells that covers the ends of the finger and toes is the Nail body
The nail body is known to cover the Nail bed
An epithelial fold not visible from the surface Nail root
A portion of the epithelial fold that extends over the exposed nail adjacent to the root Cuticle or Eponychium
What give the nail its pink color? Underlying blood vessels
What is the pale, crescent-shaped area of the nail called The lunula
How is the amount of secretion in the sebaceous glands controlled and how does it vary? By the endocrine system and varies with age, puberty and pregnancy
What are the two types of sweat glands? Eccrine sweat glands and Apocrine sweat glands
What is the difference between eccrine and apocrine sweat glands in terms of where they are located? Eccrine are distributed across most of the body apocrine sweat glands are located in the armpits, around the nipples and in the groin
What is the difference between eccrine and apocrine sweat glands in terms of function? Eccrine secrete sweat or perspiration to help cool the body apocrine sweat glands secrete fluid containing water, proteins and lipids
A rare type of acne in teenage boys, marked by inflamed, tender, ulcerative and crusting lesions of the upper trunk and face Acne fulminans
What are the characteristics of acne fulminans? Fever, leukocytosis and an elevated sedimentation rate
Abnormal skin reaction to sunlight, or more specifically to ultraviolet (UV) rays, it can be acute/sudden or chronic/ongoing and primarily occurs when your immune system reacts to UV rays Photodermatitis
One in five people who develop this condition has a family member with also experienced it, you only have a few patches of hair loss and often experience a spontaneous full recovery without treatment to this day there is no cure Alopecia Areata
Common form of hair loss in both men and women Androgenetic Alopecia
Damages only outer layer of the skin and the burn is painful and red but normally heal in a few days Superficial partial thickness (first degree)
Involves epidermis and upper layer of the dermis, may have sparing of the sweat glands and the sebaceous glands and normally heals within 10-14 days Partial thickness (second degree)
Involves all of the epidermis and dermis, may also involve underlying tissue, the nerve ending is usually destroyed and required skin grafting for recovery Full thickness (third degree)
The extract of the plant (poison ivy) and it can be active for 6 months on surfaces such as clothing Oleoresin
A discolored spot on the skin Macule or freckle
A small, elevated circumscribed lesion of the skin that is filled with pus Pustule
A localized evanescent elevation of the skin that is often accompanied by itching Wheal
An eating or gnawing away of tissue Erosion or ulcer
A solid, circumscribed, elevated area on the skin Papule
A crack like sore or slit that extends through the epidermis into the dermis Fissure
A small fluid-filled sac Vesicle/ blister
A large vesicle is known as a Bulla
What are some cause of skin irregularities? Sun exposure, skin disorders, aging and heredity
List some types of skin irregularities? Wrinkles, acne scars, pigmentation changes and loss of tone
Substances that are generally oil in nature and used for dry skin Emollients
Agents that cause of promote loosening of horny (keratin) layer of the skin Keratolytics
Inhibit the conduction of nerve impulses from sensory nerves and thereby reduce pain and discomfort Local anesthetic
Act to prevent the action of histamine Anthistamine
Agents that prevent or relieve itching Antipruritic
Agents that destroy or stop the growth of microorganisms Antibiotic
Agents that destroy or inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast Antifungal
Agents that combat specific viral diseases Antiviral
Agents used to relieve the swelling, tenderness, redness and pain of inflammation Anti-inflammatory
Agent that prevent or inhibit growth of pathogen Antiseptic
To treat acne vulgaris Retin-A
To treat androgenetic alopecia Rogaine
To temporarily improve glabellar (frown) lines Botox
Test performed to determine whether an individual infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis skin test
Interferon-gamma release assays test whether the individual is infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis blood test
A suspected allergen that causes redness or swelling at the scratch site within 10 minutes indicates allergy to the substance Scratch or prick test
Test performed on sweat to determine the level of chloride concentration on the skin. In cystic fibrosis there is an increase in skin chloride Skin test
Microscopic examination of a small piece of tissue that has been surgically scraped from a pustule to identify the type of viral infection Tzanck test
Performed on wound exudate to determine the presence of microorganisms and to identify the specific type Wound culture
Microscopic examination of a small piece of living tissue obtained surgically through a needle and syringe, hollow punch, brush or stereotactically to distinguish between benign and malignant conditions Biopsy
Blood test to determine the rate red blood cells settle in a long, narrow tube Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Composed of all the muscles in the body and works in coordination with skeletal and nervous systems Muscular system
What are the three primary functions of muscles? 1. movement of the body 2. posture and stability 3. produce heat
Muscles make up what % of body weight 42%
What are muscles composed of fiber (long, slender cells)
Each muscle consists of a group of fibers held together by what and enclosed in what? held together by connective tissue and enclosed in a fibrous shealth or fascia
Cause movement, help to main posture and produce hear are the primary functions of what? Muscles
Produce various types of body movement through contractility, extensibility and elasticity are the primary functions of what? Skeletal muscles
Produce relatively slow contraction with greater degree of extensibility in the internal organs Smooth muscles
Contraction of the myocardium which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and specialized neuromuscular tissue located within the right atrium Cardiac muslce
Bands of connective tissue that attach muscles to bones Tendons
What does a flex arm contain? Muscles, tendons and bone
What is a muscle cell? A small fiber inside the muscle
What does skeletal muscle consist of? A group of fibers held together by connective tissue then enclosed in a fibrous sheath (fascia)
What does connective tissue surround? Each muscle cell and muscle bundles
A thin layer that surrounds the muscle bundles Fascia
Each fiber within a muscles receives what? It own nerve impulses and has its own stored supply of glycogen
Gycogen is fuel for what Energy
A branched chain of stored glucose Glycogen
Blood and lymphatic vessels in muscle tissue supply what two things to muscles? Nutrition and oxygen
What are the three basic types of muscles Skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Controlled by the conscious part of the brain and attached to the bones, also known as voluntary of striated muscle Skeletal muscle
What appearance does striated muscle have Cross-striped
What is the process of skeletal muscle movement Contractility, extensibility, excitability and elasticity
Muscles and nerves function together as a Motor unit
Skeletal muscle perform in groups and are classified as follows: 1. anatagonist 2. agonist (primer mover) 3. synergist
Muscles have 3 distinguishable parts the body, the origin and the insertion
The body is also know as The main portion
The more fixed attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone is known as The origin
The point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that it moves is known as The insertion
A band of connective tissues that varies in length from less than 1 inch to more than one foot is A tendon
A wide, thin, sheet-like tendon is an Aponeurosis
When an arm is hanging the arm is Exposed
What is the muscle on the outside of the shoulder Deltoid muscle
What is the muscle in the upper chest near the should Pectoralis major
When the arm is relaxed this muscle is in the upper arm Bicep
When the arm is contracted this muscle is in the inner arm Tricep
What is the muscle at the inner elbow Bicipital fascia
What are the muscles near the wrist Flexors of the hand and wrist
Not controlled by the conscious part of the brain, under the control of the autonomic nervous system also called involuntary, visceral, or unstriated Smooth muscle
What internal organs include smooth muscle The digestive, respiratory and urinary tract
Muscle of the heart (myocardium) it is involuntary but striated in appearance Cardiac Muscle
What type of specialized tissue is located within the right atrium of the heart Neuromuscular tissue
Contraction can occure even without an initial nervous input because of what type of cells Pacemaker cells
What do cardiac muscle cells rely on to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide Ample blood supply
What type of movements are muscle responsible for Locomotion, propulsion and changes in the size openings
When chemical energy is changed into mechanical energy Locomotion
Circulation and digestion are example of substances through tubes which is what type of movement Propulsion
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic condition causing what symptoms Pain, stiffness and tenderness of the muscles, tendons and joints
What are some characteristics of fibromyalgia syndrome Restless sleep, tiredness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and disturbance in the bowel functions
A group of genetic disorders that result in muscle weakness over time Muscular dystrophy
What are two general facts of muscular dystrophy Can affect people of all ages and no specific treatment exists for any of the forms of MD
What are some treatments that help improve the quality of life for those with a form of muscular dystrophy Physical therapy, orthopedic appliances and corrective orthopedic surgery
Body erect, heading facing forward, arms by the sides with palms to the front Anatomical position
On back with lower extremities flexed and rotated outward; used in application of obstetric forceps, vaginal and rectal examination and bimanual palpation Dorsal recument position
Head of the bed or examining table is raised about 18 inches or 46 cm; patient is in a semi-upright sitting position with knees wither bent or straight Fowler
On knees, thighs upright, head and upper part of chest resting on bed or examining table, arms crossed and above head; used in sigmoidoscopy, displacement of prolapsed uterus, rectal exams and flushing of intestinal cancal Knee-chest
On back with lower extremities flexed and feet placed in stirrups; used in vaginal examinations, pap smear, vaginal operations and diagnosis and treatment diseases of the urethra and bladder Lithotomy
Sitting upright or erect, used for patients with dyspnea, shortness of breath Orthopneic
Lying face downward, used in examination of the back, injections and massage Prone
Lying on left side, right knee and thigh flexed well up above left leg that is slightly flexed, left arm behind the body and right arm forward, flexed at the elbow; used in examination of the rectum, sigmoidoscopy and enema Sims
Lying flat on back with face upward and arms at the sides, used in examining the head, neck, chest, abdomen and extremities and in assessing vital signs Supine
Body supine on a bed or examining table that is tilted at about 45 degrees angle with the head lower than the feet Trendelenburg
Relax and reduce tension in muscles Skeletal muscle relaxants
Test performs on serum that measures ALD enzyme present in skeletal and heart muscle Aldolase blood test
Test performed on serum to determine levels of calcium Calcium blood test
Blood test to determine the level of CK Creatine kinase
Test to measure electrical activity across muscle membranes by means of electrodes attached to a needle that is inserted into the muscle Electromyography
Blood test to determine the level of LDH enzyme Lactic dehyrogenase
Surgical removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examindation Muscle biopsy
What the the two types of biopsy Needle biopsy and open biopsy
Blood test to determine the level of AST enzyme, which is increased in skeletal muscle and damage and MD Aspartate Aminotransferase
Blood test to determine the level of ALT enzyme which is increased in skeletal muscle damage Alanine Aminotransferase
Created by: irmasanccheez
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