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Earth's Surface Chap

Pearson Chapter 3 vovabulary

TermDefinition
erosion The process by which water, ice wind, or gravity moves weathered particles of rock and soil
gravity The Attractive force between objects; the force that moves objects downhill
sediment Small, solid pieces of material that comes from rocks or the remainder of organisms; earth materials deposited by erosion
deposition process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
mass movement Any one of several processes by which gravity moves sediment downhill
runoff Water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
rill A tiny groove in the soil made by flowing water
gully A large channel in soil that carries runoff after a rain storm
stream A channel though which water is continuously flowing downhill
tributary A stream or river that flows into a larger river
flood plain The flat, wide area of land along a river
meander A loop like bend in the course of a river
oxbow lake A meander cut off from a river
delta A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into a ocean or lake
alluvial fan A wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range
groundwater Water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
stalactite An icicle like structure that hangs from the roof of cavern
stalagmite A column like form that grows upward from the floor of a cavern
karst topography A region in which a layer of limestone close to the surface creates deep valleys, caverns, and sinkholes
glacier Any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land
ice age Time in Earth's history during which glaciers covered large parts of the surface
till The sediment deposited directly by a glacier
continental glaciers A glacier that covers much of a continent or a large island
valley galcier A long, narrow glacier that forms when snow and ice build up in a mountain valley
moraine A ridge formed by the till deposited at the edge of a glacier
kettle A small depression that forms when a chunk of ice is left in glacier till
plucking The process by which a glacier picks up rocks as it flows over the land
headland A part of the shore that sticks out into the ocean.
Beach An area of wave washed sediment along the coast.
Longshore drift As waves repeatedly hit the beach sediment moves down the beach with the current
Spit A beach that projects like a finger out into the water.
Deflation The process by which wind removes surface materials
Sand dune When the wind meets an obstacle, the result is usually deposit of wind blown sand
Loess The fine wind deposited sediment
Created by: bostrander