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SOL 5.7 Earth Layers

Mr. Holzshu's review of the layers of the Earth, plates, and boundaries.

Rocks have properties that can be observed, tested, and described.
Composition, grain size and textural features, color, and the presence of fossils help with identification.
Rocks move and change over time due to heat and pressure within Earth.
Rocks move and change over time due to weathering, erosion, and deposition at the surface.
Rocks can change from one type to another.
sedimentary rocks layers of sediment cemented together
igneous rocks melted and cooled, e.g., lava and magma
metamorphic rocks changed by heat and pressure.
Scientific evidence indicates Earth is ancient — approximately 4.6 billion years old.
Fossils provide information about life and conditions of the past.
Earth is composed of four concentric layers
The crust is composed primarily of rocky material.
The mantle is composed mostly of molten rock.
The innermost layers are composed mostly of iron and nickel.
Pressure and temperature increase with depth beneath the surface.
Earth’s thermal energy causes movement of material within Earth.
Large continent-size blocks are called plates
Most earthquakes and volcanoes are located at the boundaries of the plates (faults).
Plates can move together convergent boundaries
Plates can move apart divergent boundaries
Plates can slip past each other horizontally transform boundaries, also called strike-slip or sliding boundaries
Geological features in the oceans (including trenches and mid-ocean ridges) and on the continents (mountain ranges, including the Appalachian Mountains) are caused by current and past plate movements.
Rocks and other materials on Earth’s surface are constantly being broken down both chemically and physically.
The products of weathering include clay, sand, rock fragments, and soluble substances.
Materials can be moved by water and wind eroded
Materials can be deposited in new locations as sediment deposition
Humans have varying degrees of impact on Earth’s surface through their everyday activities.
With careful planning, the impact on the land can be controlled
Ring of Fire The area of tectonic plates with the most amount of active volcanoes in the world.
Mountains These are formed when two convergent plates come together and force land to move upward.
Lava This is magma outside of the Earth.
Pangaea This is the theory of a "super continent", when the Earth was a single landmass.
Coffee This is what college students use to keep good grades.
Mr. Holzshu This is someone who was old enough to live on Pangaea.
Mariana Trench This is the deepest valley in the world, deep in the Pacific Ocean.
22 Miles The average thickness of the Earth's crust.
mantle The thickest layer of the Earth.
Earthquakes Caused by shifting of tectonic plates.
Transform Faults Their movement causes earthquakes.
Earth's new crust Comes from magma cooling when it reaches the crust.
volcanoes Where magma from the mantle comes from.
Trenches When convergent plates come together and push downward, these form.
Mountains When convergent plates come together and push upward, these form.
Mid-ocean ridges When divergent plates come apart, and magma seeps up, forming new crust.
faults These are the boundary lines between tectonic plates.
Created by: erichholzshu
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