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Layers of the Earth

The Earth is made of three layers crust, the mantle and the core
Earth's top layer The Crust
The Crust as thin as 5 miles thick underocean
The Crust Average thickness about 22 miles
The upper crust is made primarily of Sedimentary Rocks
These rocks are formed when materials on Earth's surface are worn away or broken up Sedimentary Rocks
These rocks are made when magma, molten rock, cools within Earth's surface or near it. These rocks come from volcanoes Igneous
These rocks are made when igneous or sedimentary rocks undergo change from heat and pressure.(requires temperature) Metamorphic
The Rock Cycle When 1 type of rock changes to another type of rock
The Mantle middle layer
when sediments are washed away with the water and harden over many years as the water evaporates. Because these types of rocks require water, often pieces of plants and animals get pressed in the sediments and form fossils
80% of Earth's total volume and 68% of the mass, making it the heaviest part of Earth. The Mantle
The Mantle is believed to be harder due to iron
The first 62 miles of this layer of earth is very rigid rock The Mantle
The remaining 155 miles of this layer of earth is close to a melting point The Mantle
This layer of earth is not a true liquid or solid (Plastic like rock flowing like syrup) The Mantle
The Core actually has two sections The Outer Core and the Inner Core
The Outer core is believed to be liquid
The Outer core is believed to influence the earth's magnetic pull
The Inner core is believed to be solid iron and nickel
the Earth is how deep 3,958/miles deep
This theory of how deep the earth is based on recordings of seismic waves, or shock waves, created by earthquake activity
The Crust is made up of solid rocks, soil,and minerals
The Crust has temperatures reaching 1,600F — hot enough to melt rocks
The Crust ranges in thickness from 5 to 25 miles
The Mantle contains a layer of very hot sometimes molten rock
The Mantle is about 1,800 miles thick with temps reaching 8,oooF
The Mantle supports the crust
Inner Core is ball shaped and made up mostly of solid iron
Inner Core is 4,000 miles below the surface of the earth
Inner Core has temps as high as 13,000F
The Outer Core is made up mostly of melted iron
The Outer Core has temperatures<reaching up to 11,000F
The Outer Core is about 1,400 miles thick
The Mantle reaches 8,000F
Scientists call the earth's crust lithosphere (litho means rock or stone)
The Earth's lithosphere changes continuously name the 4 main forces that make theses changes to Earth's surface 1. Changes in the Earth's Crust from tectonic(volcanic/eathquakes) plates 2.Weathering - wearing away of the lithosphere by wind/rain 3. Mass movement- slippage of large areas of rock and soil from landslides 4. Erosion - eating away or slow destruction
Alfred Wegener early 1900's came up with the Continental Drift Theory
The Continental Drift Theory says 200 million years ago the Earth was one large landmass called PANGAE meaning "all earth"
What did Wegener's theory state that the large continents split up and pices drifted apart from each other forming the continents we know today.
PANGAEA is divided into 2 parts northern break (Laurasia) southern break (Gondwanaland)
In 1960 scientist uncovered evidence of Wegener's theory, what was that evidence? Fossils of a dinosaur were discovered in Africa and South America and it's teeth were discovered in Antarctica. This animal does not swim so the land mass must have been connected.
What mountains match up to prove Wegeners theory Cape Mountains of South Africa match up with folded mountains near Bueno Aires, Argentina.
When were the Himalaya Mountains formed when India collided with Asia
In the 1950s, scientists were able to study the ocean floor, what did they discover underwater mountains
name the longest mountain chain in the world mid ocean ridges
Explain why the ocean floor is expanding when exploring the ocean ridge areas, they learned that rocks found near the ridges were younger than those that were further away. This was because magma from deep inside the Earth's mantle was able to rise through vents or cracks to create ridges. As th
Plate Tectonic Theory Alfred Wegener's theory of Continental Drift was
updated and refined This new version, called Plate Tectonics (blank)
Plate Tectonics explains moving continents, as well as volcanoes,
earthquakes and mountains. The Earth's crust, or lithosphere, makes up our plate system (blank)
7 major plates (Pacific, North American, South American, Eurasian, African, Australian, and Antarctic) and several smaller ones
All of these plates, with the exception of_______, contain both continental and ocean crust. The Pacific plate
the largest plate that contains almost 20% of the Earth's crust Pacific plate
Geologists believe that the plates move about on the asthenosphere because of convection currents, or movements of gases or liquids caused by differences in temperatures, deep within the Earth.
Plate Boundaries The places where the plates meet
list the 3 types of plate movement (Plate Boundaries) 1.Divergent Boundaries or SPREADING ZONE: Here, the plates spread away from each other (ocean floor, along the mid-ocean ridges)2.Convergent Boundaries or CONVERGING ZONE: Here, two plates come together - One plate slides over the other plate forcing it d
One of the best known transform boundaries San Andreas Fault in California
Which Boundary creates the most intense earthquakes Transform Boundaries
Beneath the Earth's surface, changes are occurring as well, list 3 types of INTERNAL changes mountain formation, earthquakes, and volcanoes
3 TYPES OF MOUNTAINS volcanic,Folded mountains,A dome mountain
volcanic eruptions. The Hawaiian Islands are mountains formed BY
Folded mountains are the most common mountains
The Alps, Himalayas, Rockies and the Appalachians are examples of folded mountains
two lithospheric plates push together over time until these are formed folded mountains
dome mountain Magma is trapped in a pocket beneath the rock layers of the
earth and is unable to work its way to the surface. (blank)
a dome mountain The Black Hills of South Dakota
fault block mountains like the Sierra Nevadas in Utan and Nevada.
Geologists believe the Earth's crust bends in as it floats on the fluid-like mantle. It continues bending until the pressure becomes too great, and then the rocks that form the crust split. fault block mountains
earthquake trembling or shaking of the Earth that occurs because of a sudden movement of the crust. more than one million earthquakes each year.
What is the most common cause of earthquakes is faulting.
Describe Earthquake When the lithospheric plates slide along, the sliding plates break loose,and stored energy is released,The energy travels through the surrounding rocks until the energy is used up. When energy is released through the rocks, it can 1.MOVE THE ROCKS 2. OR V
the vibration of rocks during an earthquake seismic waves
Used to measure waves(Vibration) seismograph
How is the the magnitude, (or strength)of an earthquake determined Richter Scale, which is numbered from 1 to 10.
Any earthquake measuring what or more is considered a major quake with the potential for much destruction 6.0
a passage and an opening in the Earth's surface through which hot, molten rock is forced out A volcano
liquid rock, called magma
When magma reaches the surface, it is called lava(igneous rock)
Magma rises through what chambers
What forms a volcanic mountain the cooling of lava build up
At the top of the volcano a steep-sided hole is known as a crater
The volcano's opening, which allows the magma to flow to the Earth's surface is called the vent.
Between eruptions, active volcanoes are/said to be dormant
An extinct volcano volcano that has stopped erupting
Where Most of the world's 850 active volcanoes lie the Ring of Fire, a belt that edges the Pacific Ocean.
Created by: hamiltonj
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