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Science Chapter 4

Note Worsheet

QuestionAnswer
mixture of minerals, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other material rock
model showing processes that create and change rock rock cycle
rock can be changed by heat and pressure into metamorphic rock sedimentary
rock can melt and cool to form igneous rock metamorphic
rock can be broken into fragments that may later form sedimentary rock igneous
rock cycle never destroys elements of rocks, but merely redistributes them conservation of matter
recognized the rock cycle in 1788 by observing Siccar Point, Scotland James Hutton
form from magma found deep under Earth's surface igneous rock
magma reaching the surface flows from a volcano as___ lava
magma trapped below the surface forms large-grained____ igneous rock when it cools intrusive
magma cooling at or near Earth's surface forms small-grained ____ igneous rocks extrusive
_____ igneous rocks are dark-colored and dense basaltic
basaltic igneous rocks contain ____ and _____ but very little silica iron and magnesium
basaltic lava flows _____ from a volcano freely
_____ igneous rocks are lower density and lighter colored granitic
granitic magma is ____ and ___ thick and stiff
granitic igneous rocks contain more _____ and less iron and magnesium silica
_____ rocks have a more balanced composition of minerals and density that basaltic or granitic rocks andesitic
crystal ____, large or small, can help identify an igneous rock as intrusive or extrusive size
volcanic glass rocks ____ so quickly that few crystals form cool
some rocks have ____ formed around once-trapped air and other gases holes
igneous rocks are _____ in two ways classified
where the igneous rock was formed- ____ (under the Earth's surface) or _____ (at or near the Earth's surface) intrusive and extrusive
_____ type- basaltic, granitic, or andesitic magma
metamorphic rocks- changed by ____, ______, and hot fluids temperature and pressure
_____ and _____ result from one layer of rock on top of another layer heat and pressure
sometimes temperature and pressure are great enough to ____ rock, forming magma melt
sometimes pressure ____ mineral grains in rocks without melting them flattens
as pressure and temperature continue to increase over time, one type of rock can change in _____ ______ metamorphic rocks several different
hot, water-rich ____ can move through rock, chemically changing it fluids
classification of metamorohic rocks- by composition and ____ texture
______ texture- mineral grains flatten and line up in parallel layers or bands foliated
_______ texture- mineral grains grow and rearrange but do not form layers nonfoliated
______ rocks- mostly found on the exposed surface of Earth Sedimentary
rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of plant and animal remains moved by wind, water, ice or gravity are called ____ sediments
sedimentary rocks form in _____ layers
sedimentary rocks- ______ by what they were made of and how they were formed classified
______ sedimentary rocks- made from broken fragments of other rocks detrital
when layers of small sediments stick together because of pressure, ____ occurs compaction
when water and other minerals move through open spaces between larger sediments, gluing them together, ____ occurs cementation
Detrital rocks have a ______ texture granular
rocks are named according to _____ and ____ of sediments shape and size
Sediments can be _____ or have _____ angles round or sharp
sediment size can be small like____ or large like _____ clay or gravel
chemical sedimentary rocks- non-clastic rocks formed when dissolved _____ came out of solution minerals
limestone forms from _____, which was calcium carbonate in solution calcite
rock salt forms form _____, which was salt in a solution halite
organic sedimentary rocks- made from ___ of once-living plants or animals remains
________- made of micrscopic calcie-shell remains of animals chalk
______- made of plant remains, chamically changed by microorganisma and compacted over millions of years coal
rock cycle- a ______ and dynamic process continuous
Created by: SCAW