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TEAS-Science

Chromosomes, Genes and DNA

QuestionAnswer
In all cells and all cellular organisms, the molecule that carries information is "BLANK" Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
As an information molecule, DNA serves two main functions: 1. It passes the information it encodes to the next generation, so that progeny cells and offspring look and behave much like their parents. 2.DNA also provides the blueprint or receipts for maintaining cellular function.
"BLANK" is a macromolecule and a polymer made up of monomers linked together in a long chain. DNA
Monomers of DNA are "BLANK" that form "BLANK" bonds with one another. Nucleotide, covalent
Each covalent bond forms when a nucleotide in the growing DNA chain forms a bond with a free nucleotide via a "BLANK." The resulting covalent bond is called a bond "BLANK." Dehydration reaction, phosphodiester
A deoxyribonucleotide is a kind of "BLANK" ; a highly modified "BLANK" that is the monomer found in DNA. Sugar
There are "BLANK" deoxyribonucleotides that can become part of a DNA molecule. Four
Notice that the "BLANK" group and the sugar "BLANK" parts are identical in each nucleotide. Phosphate, deoxyribose
What distinguishes the four nucleotides from one another are the "BLANK", which are usually called the bases. Nitrogenous base
These bases are: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).
The DNA double helix is the normal state of DNA. It is made of two — "BLANK" two long strands of "BLANK" —wound around each other. Polynucleotides, nucleotides
The DNA backbone is made of alternating "BLANK" and "BLANK" . Sugars and Phosphates
Each base from one strand is "BLANK" bonded to the base facing it on the opposite strand. Hydrogen
That hydrogen bonds are a type of "BLANK" bond. Noncovalent
The shape of the double helix is maintained by "BLANK" Base-pairing rules.
Guanine only hydrogen bonds with "BLANK" Cytosine
Adenine only hydrogen bonds with "BLANK" Thymine
The information in DNA resides in the sequence of "BLANK" Bases
The order of the bases on a strand of a DNA double helix encodes the information that enables cells to "BLANK", "BLANK" and "BLANK" Function, adapt, and reproduce
Nearly all of the DNA in a human cell is packaged into the cell’s "BLANK" , a large organelle whose primary job is to sequester the DNA and its encoded information. Nucleus
The complete set of genetic information in a cell is called its Genome.
The DNA within the nucleus is divided into a specific number of "BLANK" . The actual number is specific to each species. Molecules
Humans possess "BLANK" unique pieces of DNA. 46
Each one is called a Chromosome.
Closer examination reveals that each chromosome has a matching partner. In other words, humans possess "BLANK" pairs of chromosomes, so we have two copies of our genome inside the nucleus of every on of our cells. 23
A single chromosome is a very long "BLANK" of DNA. double helix
To package a molecule of DNA into a chromosome, the cell uses "BLANK" that twist the DNA into incredibly tight bundles. Proteins
It is in the sequence of bases in a molecule of DNA that "BLANK" information. Encodes
The “sentences” in a chromosome are called "BLANK" Genes
"BLANK" are sequences of DNA that encode something that the cell can use. Genes
Most often, genes encode for "BLANK" Proteins
Some genes encode for functional "BLANK" molecules, like "BLANK" and "BLANK" RNA, Transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Other critical parts of a gene serve as sites that are bound by proteins whose jobs are to decode the information in the gene or to control if and when a gene is decoded. These parts of the gene are called Regulatory binding sites
In humans and most other eukaryotes (organisms that have a nucleus inside each cell), not all of the DNA is divided into "BLANK" Genes
A gene is also a unit of "BLANK" Heredity -This means that genes that get passed from one generation to the next.
What are Codons The words are codons, triplets of bases that each code for an amino acid.
That "BLANK" are polymers built of strings of amino acids. Proteins
There are "BLANK" common amino acids that make up nearly every protein in nearly every organism on Earth. Twenty
How is a gene—a sequence built from only four nucleotides—translated into the sequence of amino acids that make a protein? The answer is the Genetic code.
Cells possess a remarkable set of proteins and protein—RNA machines that convert "BLANK" in a gene first into an RNA molecule and then into a "BLANK" Codons, Protein.
So a good thing to remember is that DNA makes RNA, which makes protein.
To make an "BLANK" copy from a DNA gene, the two hydrogen-bonded strands of a double helix unwind near the beginning of the gene RNA
Proteins then use one of the unwound DNA strands as a template and build a "BLANK" this is possible because of base paring rules. Complimentary Strand of RNA
G and "BLANK" base pair C
A and "BLANK" base pair T
The wrinkle with RNA is that instead of a T (thymine) base, RNA uses a similar molecule, "BLANK" uracil (U).
So to make RNA from a DNA template, A (on DNA) and "BLANK" U (on RNA) base pair.
The RNA that is made is called "BLANK" and it is a copy of a gene. messenger RNA or mRNA,
The mRNA exits the nucleus and binds to a "BLANK" where "BLANK" takes place. Ribosome, Protein synthesis
A ribosome is a machine made of proteins and "BLANK" rRNA
As each codon is read by the ribosome, the codon is bound by a "BLANK" (using the base-pairing rules) that has an amino acid hooked to it tRNA
There are "BLANK" different possible codons. 64
Each codon is recognized by a specific "BLANK", and because each "BLANK" carries only one amino acid, then each codon encodes for a specific amino acid tRNA
Before one cell becomes two, the genetic material has to be Replicated.
Replication of the chromosomes occurs during the synthesis phase of the "BLANK" Cell cycle.
Another phase of the cell cycle that you might recognize is "BLANK" when the replicated chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and then separate to the two poles of the cell. Mitosis
Replication of the chromosomes happens during a phase of a process known as the cell cycle
Each duplicate in a chromosome pair is called a chromatid
A pair of duplicates chromosomes are called sister chromatids.
Once the genome is completely "BLANK" then the cell can enter mitosis. Duplicated,
Created by: bonitasoul
 

 



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