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Gen. Bio II - Evo.

General Biology II - Evolution of Populations

the smallest unit of evolution are populations
the impact of natural selection is only apparent in populations____________________ over time
microevolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
what are three mechanisms of microevolution 1) natural selection, 2) genetic drift, 3) gene flow
just a few years after Darwin published his essay, Gregor Mendel started studying ______________ peas
who set the stage to understanding genes and genetic variation Gregory Mendel
evolution would be impossible without ______________________________ genetic variation
individuals within species vary in specific characteristics , is an example of what? genetic variation leads to variations in specific characteristis
genetic variations are often reflected by ___________________ phenotypic variations
name the four sources of genetic variation 1) formation of new alleles, 2) altering gene number or position, 3) rapid reproduction, 4) sexual reproduction
new alleles are formed by _________________ mutations
a mutation is a change in ___________________ sequence of an organisms DNA nucleotide sequences
(high/slow) reproduction rates have lower mutation rates high mutation rates = lower mutation rates
_____________________ results in unique combinations of alleles sexual reproduction
what kind of reproduction allows the shuffling of existing alleles sexual reproduction involves shuffling of existing alleles
what is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area, interbreeding, and producing fertile offspring population is the group of individuals of the same species living in the same area, interbreeding, and producing fertile offspring
what is a gene pool all copies of every type of allel at every loci in all member of the population
in Hardy-Weinberg what does "p" represent the frequency of the dominant allele
in Hardy-Weinberg what is the frequency of the recessive allel q
the Hardy-Weinberg represents populations that (are/are not) evolving Hardy-Weinberg represents populations that ARE NOT evolving
name the five conditions that need to exist for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 1) No Mutations, 2) Random Mating, 3) no natural selection, 4) extremely large population size, 5) no gene flow.
what is the medical application for the Hardy-Weinberg equation medicine- determining what percentage of the population is carrying an allele for inherited diseases
what three things disrupt the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium 1) genetic drift, 2) natural selection, 3) gene flow
why is genetic drift not ideal fro the hardy-weinberg equilibrium genetic drift causes allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably, one generation to the next
genetic drift has the greatest effect on (small/large) populations small populations
what two type of genetic drifts can have significant impact on populations 1) founders effect, 2) bottleneck effect
the ____________________ effect is the isolation of a few individuals from larger population, that lease to establishment of a new population (like colonization) founders effect
describe the bottleneck effect a suddentenvironmental change that leads to the drastic reduction of population size (like Noah's Flood)
what could lead to higher frequency of certain inherited disorders and lower levels of genetic variation over a long period of time genetic drift
what is the transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to movement of fertile individuals or their gametes gene flow
what is relative fitness the contributions that an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of others.
natural selection acts more on (genotype/phenotype) phenotype.
name the three ways in which natural selection can alter frequency distributions in populations directional selection, disruptive selection, stabilizing selection
(directiona/disruptive/stabilizing) selection occurs when the phenotype favors one extreme over middle of the road directional
as a result of the directional shift, what happens to the bell curve bell curve moves to one side or the other
disruptive selection favors what phenotypes disruptive selection favors the phenotype at both extremes
disruptive selection is also known as _________________ selection diversifying
birth weights is an example of _________________ selection stabilizing
what is stabilizing selection when natural selection favors only the middle
___________________ leads to a "good match" between organisms and its environment natural selection
____________________ leads to sexual dimorphism sexual selection
what is sexual selection individuals with certain inherited traits more likely to obtain mates
what is sexual dimorphism the difference of secondary sexual characteristics between males and females
name the two types of sexual selection 1) intrasexual selection, 2) intersexual selection
what is intrasexual selection when same sex individuals in the populations compete for the opposite sex (usually occurs with males)
what is intersexual selection when one sex chooses the mate of the opposite sex
carriers of sickle cell anemia, do not get Malaria, this is an example of what heterozygote advantage
what is heterozygote advantage when the heterozygote has greater advantage than homozygotes
frequency - dependent selection is when the fitness of the phenotype depends on how common it is in population
evolution is limited by historical constraints ; each species descends with modification from ancestral forms
adaptations often comes with _________________________. example, structural reinforcements are compromised for agility (increased agility can also be more prone to sprains, torn ligaments, and dislocations) compromises
Created by: kandriot
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