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Biological Macro molecules

Humans are made of cells, and these cells are made of water, some small molecules, ions, and specialized structures called Macromolecules
The human body is mostly water, about "BLANK" percent by weight. 70%
The small molecules are mostly of four types:"BLANK", "BLANK", "BLANK" and "BLANK" Sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides
The rest of the body—about "BLANK" percent —is macromolecules. 25%
There are three classes of Macromolecules: "BLANK", "BLANK" and "BLANK" Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids
Every macromolecule is a "BLANK" built by linking together small subunits Polymer
The subunits are called "BLANK" and each type of the three macromolecules is made from a specific class of "BLANK" Monomers
Monomers Macromolecules
Sugars Polysaccharides
Amino acids Proteins
Nucleotides Nucleic Acid
The bond that holds one sugar to the next is a "BLANK" bond Covalent
Forming a covalent bond in a macromolecule requires an input of energy, which usually comes from the removal of a"BLANK" or a similar high-energy molecule Phosphate from adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
High energy molecule drives a water molecule from two "BLANK" , enabling the covalent bond to from. Adjacent sugar molecules
Forming a covalent bond by displacing a water molecule is called a"BLANK" , also called a "BLANK" Dehydration reaction, Condensation reaction
"BLANK" serve as the sensors, transporters, regulators, builders, information warehouses, energy storehouses, and structural components of cells and bodies Macro molecules
The function of a macromolecule is dependent on its "BLANK" Three-dimensional shape.
Hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds are examples of Noncovalent bonds.
Individual noncovalent bonds are "BLANK" enough to form spontaneously, but also break easily. Weak
The remarkable thing about macromolecules is that dozens, sometimes hundreds or thousands, of noncovalent bonds form at the "BLANK" Same time.
Like a zipper firmly holds a coat closed, these noncovalent bonds work together to give macromolecules "BLANK", "BLANK" and "BLANK" Shape, structure, and function.
Polysaccharides and sugars are better known as Carbohydrates
The analogous energy storehouse in animals (including humans) is Glycogen.
"BLANK"and "BLANK" are polymers made of glucose. Starch and glycogen
One way that we get the energy we need is to break down stored "BLANK" into "BLANK" which is then used by our cells to make ATP. Glycogen into glucose
The chemical reaction that converts a polymer of glycogen into monomers of glucose is called a "BLANK" , because molecules of water (hydro) lyse the covalent bonds. Hydrolysis reaction
Hydrolysis is essentially the opposite of a "BLANK" reaction. Dehydration
"BLANK" and "BLANK" are two of the most abundant molecules on Earth. Each is a "BLANK" that is used to provide a support skeleton to certain animals or plants, respectively. Chitin and cellulose, polysaccharide
But every protein is built from the same raw materials—20 kinds of "BLANK" Amino acids.
The amino acids are linked together by a "BLANK" reaction to form a covalent bond that is called a "BLANK" Dehydration, peptide bond.
Once all of the amino acids in a particular protein are linked together, this polypeptide spontaneously folds into a specific "BLANK" shape. Three-dimensional
The folding process of amino acid is driven by the formation of hundreds of noncovalent bonds. The end result is functional"BLANK"or"BLANK" unit. Protein
Proteins are the workhorses of the "BLANK" Cell
Every chemical reaction in a cell—and there are thousands of them going on all the time—is carried out by an "BLANK" Enzyme.
Every enzyme is a protein that "BLANK" a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy. Catalyzes (speeds up)
DNA and RNA are the two types "BLANK" of found in cells. Nucleic acids
"BLANK" is made of two nucleic acid polymers that wind around each other to form the famous DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DNA stores the "BLANK" within a cell. This information is stored in the sequence of bases within a DNA molecule. Hereditary information
Each monomer of RNA is a type of nucleotide, called a "BLANK" , which is made up of a ribose sugar linked on one side to a trio of phosphates and on the other side to a nitrogenous base. Ribonucleotide
RNA molecules are essential for converting the information stored in DNA into "BLANK" Proteins.
Sugars and starches, which the body breaks down, into glucose. Carbohydrates
Fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water. Lipids
A molecule that contains a large number of atoms. Macromolecules
Molecules that can bond to similar or identical molecules to form a polymer. Monomers
Long molecules made of nucleotide, DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids
A substance composed of similar units bonded together. Polymer
Molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Proteins
"BLANK" are sometimes grouped among the macromolecules, but "BLANK" are not polymers. This is because they are not built from monomers joined together via dehydration reactions. Lipids
Lipids are a diverse set of molecules that are grouped together because of how they interact with water. lipids are "BLANK" , meaning they do not dissolve in water. Hydrophobic
Every lipid is made up mostly of "BLANK" and "BLANK" bonds. These types of bonds do not interact with water. Carbon-carbon and Carbon hydrogen
These "BLANK" store five times as much energy as a comparable amount of carbohydrate. Triglycerides
A third class of Lipids is "BLANK" , which includes cholesterol and the hormones testosterone and estrogens. Steroids
Phospholipids and triglycerides are both made from the same components:"BLANK" and "BLANK" . Fatty acids and Glycerol
Fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains with a "BLANK" on one end. Carboxylic acid
Glycerol is a type of "BLANK" . Sugar
Some fatty acids are made entirely of "BLANK" between the carbon atoms. Such an arrangement is called a Single bonds, Saturated fatty acid.
Fatty acids that contain a "BLANK" between two of the carbon atoms are called. Double bond, Unsaturated
Lipids that contain "BLANK" fatty acids cannot pack as tightly together, so they melt at lower temperatures than do saturated Lipids. Unsaturated
Created by: bonitasoul
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