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Cellular Biology

A&P I - Cellular Mechanisms

_________________ fluid volume makes up a majority of the body weigh intracellular fluid volume
there are two fluid compartments in the human body, What are they Intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid
the intracellular and extracellular fluid (are/are not) in osmotic equilibrium but/and have (the same/different) chemical compositions they are in osmotic equilibrium and have different chemical compositions
intracellular makes up ______________ of the total body water volume 2/3 or 67-68%
where is intracellular fluid found inside the the cells
extracellular fluid makes up ____________ of the total body water volume 1/3 or 32-33%
__________________ lies between the circulatory system and the cells interstitial fluid
______________________ is the fluid matrix of the blood blood plasma
material moving into and out of the ICF must cross the ___________________ cell membrane
in order for substances to move between the plasma and interstitial fluid it must first cross what? substances must first cross the leaky exchange epithelium of the capillary wall to move from the plasma to the interstitial fluid
when lipids are added to water ___________ forms monolayer
Phospholipids rearrange into a bilayer when _____________________ another layer of water is added
what are the two parts of the phospholipid bilayer hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic fatty-acid tails
the _________________ of the phospholipid faces towards the watery environment on both sides hydrophilic head
what part of the phospholipid faces towards the inside of the cell membrane hydrophobic tail
the head of the phospholipid is (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) the fatty-acid tail of the phospholipid is (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) head - hydrophilic, tail- hydrophobic
what aspect of the phospholipid plays a dynamic role in cellular activity the hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails
what makes the cell membrane selectively permeable the phospholipid bilayer (the difference in polarities between the head and tail on the phospholipid molecule)
name four functions of the plasma membrane creates a physical barrier, regulates exchange, sensitive to the environment, and provides structural support
what are some examples of how the plasma membrane might be sensitive extracellular composition and response to chemical signals
how does the plasma membrane provide structural support the plasma membrane will anchor cells and tissues
transport across membranes are either ____________________ or ______________ passive or active.
give two examples of active transport protein mediated and vesicular transport
_______________________ transport can be both active and passive protein mediated can be both passive and active
give some examples of vesicular transport exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis
which type of protein mediated transport uses ATPase Primary (Direct) active transport
which type of protein mediated transport creates a a concentration gradient using ATP secondary (indirect) active transport
name the three types of passive protein mediated diffusion facilitated diffusion, ion channels, and aquaporin channels
what are the two types of passive transport across membranes protein mediated passive transport and simple diffusion
all molecules in the body (are/are not) in constant motion regardless of the presence of a membrane. what kind of energy is this are. This is kinetic energy.
when does motion stop absolute zero (0 Kelvin)
how does a membrane affect the movement in a certain direction movement in certain directions are limited or changed with the presence of a membrane
a molecule will move in a certain direction until it collides with another molecule
when a molecule collides with another molecule what happens to the direction of said molecule the trajectory (direction) of the molecule will change
what does Fick's Law relate to diffusion rate
according to Fick's Law, how is surface area related to diffusion rates it is proportional to diffusion rate (increase surface area and diffusion rate will also increase)
according to Fick's Law, the (higher/lower) the difference in concentration gradients the greater the diffusion rate the higher the difference in concentration gradients the higher the diffusion rate
according to Fick's Law, how does thickness in the respiratory surface affect diffusion rates thickness of surface is indirectly proportional to diffusion rate (the increased thickness of the barrier, the decreased diffusion rate)
___________________ permeability allows the passage of all substances freely permeable
the plasma membrane of a cell (is/is not) freely permeable plasma membrane IS NOT freely permeable
a plasma membrane is __________________ permeable plasma membrane is SELECTIVELY permeable
a selective permeable membrane will restrict materials based on what? size, electrical charge, molecular shape, and lipid solubility
a _____________ membrane does not allow anything in or our of a cell impermeable
living substances can be impermeable to some substances and _________________ permeable to other substances. This makes it selectively permeable living substances can be impermeable to some substances and FREELY permeable to other substances
(all/some/no) living cell have impermeable membranes no living cells have impermeable membranes
Diffusion uses the ________________ of molecular movement and does not require an outside energy source kinetic energy
during diffusion, molecules move from an area of (high/low) concentration to an area of (high/low) concentration molecules move from an area of HIGH to an area of LOW concentration
molecular movement in and out of a cell (does/does not) continue even after equilibrium has been reached molecular movement in and out of a cell DOES continue even after a cell has been reached
what four factors make general diffusion faster higher difference between concentration gradients, shorter distances, higher temperatures, and smaller molecules
with simple diffusion, what helps to increase the general rate of diffusion larger surface area, thin membrane, larger differences between the two concentration gradients, more permeable to the molecule
what does membrane permeability depend on with simple diffusion the molecule's lipid solubility, the molecule's size, the lipid composition of the membrane
what is simple diffusion the movement of particles through the plasma membrane with no assistance
__________________ substances diffuse directly thought the lipid bilayer non polar (lipid-soluble) molecules diffuse directly thorough the lipid bilayer
gases (readily/do not) diffuse through the lipid bilayer gases READILY Diffuse
what types of of membrane proteins are used for protein mediated transport transmembrane proteins
what is a membrane transporter transmembrane proteins that help move lipophobic molecules across membranes
gated channels are part of (channel/carrier) proteins gated channels are part of channel proteins
the ______________________ protein channels open and close in response to a signal gated channel proteins open in response to a signal
__________________________ protein channels form channels that are usually open open protein channels are usually open
name the types of carrier proteins found in a plasma membrane uniport carriers and cotransporters (Symport Carriers and Antiport carriers)
this carrier protein transports only one kind of substrate uniport carrier
the (carrier/channel) protein changes shape to allow a substance into and out of a cell carrier proteins change shape to allow passage of materials
this carrier protein will move two substrates (i.e. Sodium Ion and Glucose) in the same direction across a membrane symport carriers
which carrier protein moves substrates in the opposite direction across a membrane antiport carrier
what substances diffuse in and out of the cell using protein channels water and other lipid-insoluble molecules
protein channels are ____________________ selective protein channels are highly selective
what makes protein channels so selective diameter, shape, charge and chemical bonds
facilitated diffusion is assisted by large, polar carrier protiens
carrier proteins (do/do not) specify for certain polar molecules carrier proteins DO show specificity for certain polar molecules
what dictates the amount of specific polar substances that can enter/exit a cell? the number of carrier proteins influence the number of substances that can enter/exit the membrane
cells in the ___________________ check glucose levels by their own metabolism pancreas
in the pancreas, increased glucose levels lead to an increased _____________ production rate ATP
when does osmosis occur osmosis occurs when the concentration of water is different on opposite sides of a selectively permeable membrane
in order for osmosis to occur, the membrane must be (freely permeable/impermeable) to water the membrane must be freely permeable for osmosis to occur
what is osmolality one mole is 1 kg molar weight
what is osmolarity on mole per one liter
what are two important things that osmolarity expresses about a solution 1) concentration, 2) number of particles in the solute
1 M of glucose = ____________ osM 1 M of glucose = 1osM
1 M of NaCl = ______________ osM 1 M of NaCl = 2 osM
___________________ is the force of a concentration gradient of water osmotic pressure is a concentration gradient of water
osmotic pressure is defined by the (number/size) of the particles in a solution osmotic pressure is defined by the NUMBER of particles in the solution
each particl in a solution exerts (the same mount of pressure/a pressure the ais the proprotional to the size of the substance) each particle in a solution, regardless of it's mass, exerts the same pressure against the membrane in osmotic pressure
___________ is the comparision between two solutions (separated by a membrane) tonicity is the comparison between two solutions
__________ describes to us how a solution will affect a cell tonicity
what is isotonic when a solution has the same concentration of the cytosol
what is a hypertonic solution when the solution has a greater concentration than that of the cytosol
a ____________________ solution has less solute concentrations then that of the cytosol hypotonic solution
what type of solutes determine tonicity non penetrating (solutes that are impermeable to a selectively permeable membrane)
what three things do you need to know in order to determine tonicity 1) amount of particles, 2) penetrating/non-penetrating, and 3) how many particles each solute contributes
normal saline contains ___________________% of salt 0.9 %
Normal saline has a molarity of __________________ 150
____________________________ is when waters and solutes pass through a membrane by hydrostatic pressur filtration occurs because of hydrostatic pressure
in what organ of the body does filtration play a key role in it's function kidneys
how does hydrostatic pressure work a pressure gradient pushes solute-containing fluid from a higher-pressure area to a lower-pressure area
when dealing with hydrostatic pressure, what dictates the types of solutes that pass through the membrane the size of the pores dictates the size of the substances that may pass through
Movement that goes against a concentration gradient must use ________________ ATP
what does active transport use to move substances across a membrane active transport uses ATP to move solutes across a membrane
name two types of transport that use ATP 1) active transport (via carrier proteins), 2) vesicular transport
Created by: kandriot



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