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MMS Genetics

Genetics Unit Key Terms

Traits A specific version of a characteristic (Example: Blue eyes, brown hair, curly hair, green peas)
Characteristic A general category of inherited traits (Example: Eye color, hair color, skin tone)
Sexual Reproduction 2 parents, 2 sources of DNA. Produces genetically unique offspring (kids that have a different combination of DNA than their parents) (Example: humans - egg is fertilized by sperm)
Asexual Reproduction 1 parent, 1 source of DNA. Produces an exact genetic copy, or a clone, of the parent (example: bacteria copy DNA and divide into a new cell)
Mutation When DNA is miscopied, a mistake in the DNA occurs
Fertilization When an egg cell and sperm cell combine
Clone An exact genetic copy of another organism (the same DNA)
sperm cell Male reproductive cell, contains half of a set of DNA
egg cell Female reproductive cell, contains half of a set of DNA
inherited when traits or genes are passed from parents to offspring
gene a sequence of DNA that codes for a trait
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid, contained in the nucleus, and makes chromosomes comes from parents, is a double helix shape
dominant an allele (part of a gene) that shows up and is represented by a capital letter. It will cover up a recessive trait (Example: T, B, blue tail color)
recessive an allele (part of a gene) that only shows up if both alleles are recessive. It can be covered by a dominant allele (Example: t, b, orange tail color)
allele Part of a gene, 2 are needed for a complete gene (Example: T)
homozygous when both alleles in a gene are the same (Example: TT, tt)
heterozygous when each allele in a gene are different (Example: Tt)
genotype the alleles that make up a gene (What the genes say) Example: Tt, TT, tt
phenotype the physical appearance based on the genotype. Example: blue tail color, orange tail color, brown eyes
Punnett Square a diagram used to show the likelihood of each outcome of a breeding experiment
Gregor Mendel The father of genetics. An austrian monk who bred pea plants to study inheritance
co-dominance When traits inherited show BOTH traits of the parents (Example: A parent with type A blood and a parent with type B blood have a child with type AB blood)
incomplete dominance When traits inherited are in between the other traits (Example: a red flower is bread with a white flower to make a pink flower)
chromosome a long strand of DNA that contains genes. Humans have 46 chromosomes - 23 from each parent.
Created by: cvanwyk