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5.3 vocab

TermDefinition
chromosome coiled structure made of DNA and proteins containing sister chromatids that is the form in which the genetic material of a cell goes through cell division
gene unit of DNA on a chromosome that is encoded with the instructions for a single protein
homologous chromosomes pair of chromosomes that have the same size and shape and contain the same genes. get one from mom and one from dad.
asexual reproduction reproduction that involves a single parent and results in offspring that are all genetically identical to the parent
crossing over
diploid (2n) having two of each type of chromosome
egg Female gamete (sex cell)
fertilization fusion of male and female gametes.
gamete reproductive cell produced during meiosis that has the haploid number of chromosomes
gametogenesis development of haploid cells into gametes such as sperm and egg
haploid (1n) having only one chromosome of each type
independent assortment the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes. Different chromosome combinations end up in different gametes. (some from mom & some from dad)
meiosis type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half and four haploid (1n) cells result (used in the production of sperm and egg cells)
sexual reproduction type of reproduction that involves the fertilization of gametes produced by two parents and produces offspring that are genetically different
sperm Male gamete (sex cell)
zygote diploid cell (2n) that forms when two haploid (1n) gametes combine during fertilization.
ovum (ova) A mature egg cell
binary fission A form of asexual reproduction in single
Fragmentation A means of asexual reproduction where a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals. (starfish)
budding A form of asexual reproduction of yeast in which a new cell grows out of the body of a parent.
ovule and pollen grain gametes (sex cells) of plants
sperm and egg gametes (sex cells) of animals
Mitosis part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides. results in a compete set of DNA (diploid)(2n)
type of cell division that happens in body cells. growth and repair. identical cells. complete set of chromosomes (2n) mitosis
type of cell division that happens to produce gametes (sex cells). genetically different. half the number of chromosomes (1n) meiosis
23 haploid number for humans
46 diploid number for humans
Created by: ssingewald